90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44)

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, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge Base, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseOperations of the 1st Battalion, 358th Infantry Regiment, 90th Infantry Division in and around the Fort Koenigsmacker, North of Thionville, France, 9/11 November 1944 during the Rhineland Campaign. This archive is the Personal Experience of Capt Harry W. Barnes, Heavy Weapons Company Executive Officer.

This report covers the operations of the 1/358-IR (Lt Col C. A. Lytle) (90-ID) in the assault and capture of the Fort Koenigsmacker, one of the forts of the outer defenses of Metz, north of Thionville, in France. As a matter of introduction I would like to go back to Utah Beach on the Cherbourg peninsula.

It was at 1000 in the morning on D-Day that the first elements of the 90-ID placed their feet on French soil. It was here that the epic of the 90-ID will begin to unravel itself until we reach the action covered by this report. The path ran as follows : Foret de Mont-Castre, Périers and then the breakout of the Cherbourg peninsula. The action following was the mad dash across France, passing through Avranches, Mayennes, le Mans and the north to Alençon and Chambois to the part in the Falaise pocket episode. After this comparative brief diversion, the division then resumed its dash across France, in conjunction with Patton’s Armor, as a part of the XX Corps. This path followed the course of Chatres, Fontainbleau, Reims and Thionville.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThe Germans at this point, in the 90-ID sector, were forced across the Moselle River. It was at this point, generally along the west bank of the Moselle, that the 90-ID was ordered to halt and assume the attitude of aggressive defense. The date was September 12 1944.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge Base, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThis condition was caused to exist because of the extended supply lines created by Gen Patton’s 3-A pursuit across France. Another reason for the halt was the factor of Fortress Metz to the south of Thionville in the 5-ID sector. After this thrust across France, the Germans in the 3-A sector, had moved back to a strong defensive position which extended from Luxembourg in the north to the foothills of the Vosges Mountains, in the south.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThe strongly fortified city of Metz was in the center of this defensive works. Metz had a strong ring of 43 intercommunicating forts for its defense, as well as the high hills that cradled the Moselle. The Germans had reached a line at which they chose to fight. The stronghold of Metz was to be held at all cost. The XX Corps Mission, however, was to reduce the Metz fortifications and capture the city.


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, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseSomething was going to have to give. The assault of the fortifications and the city could not begin immediately due to the critical situation existing with supplies. The XX Corps had dangerously stretched its supply lines from the time of the breakout of Normandy to this time. As supplies were building up an effort was made to reduce Fort Driant and Fort Verdun then strike Metz from the south. Thing was begun on September 7.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge Base, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThe attempt on Forts Driant and Verdum failed, however a bridgehead in the vicinity of Fort Verdun failed and a bridgehead in the vicinity of Dornat was held to keep their attention, while another crossing was made at Arnaville, 4000 yards to the south. This operation was successful and the 5-ID and the 7-AD had succeeded in reaching a point on the Seille River, and out-flanked several of the Metz positions.

By October 10, the 3-A front formed an obtuse angle, the side extending along the Moselle, north to the Luxembourg border and south to Chateau Salina with Metz occupying the apex.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThe Fortified Region of Metz

As can now be seen, the big job in front of the XX Corps was the reduction of Metz and its outlying forts. This would have to be done before the XX Corps could accomplish any further missions to the east and to the Saar River. A brief word as to the strength of the fortified area is as follows; it consisted of an inner ring of forts, of which there are 15 in number.

These were begun back in the 18th Century and completed in 1866 under Napoleon III. They had been reconditioned, reinforced and equipped for modern warfare. The outer ring of forts, 28 in number, were located out about 6 miles from the city of Metz, in all directions, in which Metz was the hub.

In conjunction with this group of forts, of the Metz group, was a series of forts of the Maginot Line further to the north. These included Fort Koenigsmacker and Dillange. These seemed to tie in perfectly with the over all plan for the defense of Metz.

The Plan of the Third Army

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge Base, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThe sole mission of the 3-A in the XX Corps sector was, not that of taking the city of Metz alone, but in conjunction with the over-all effort of the expelling the Germans from French soil and hurling them back to the Rhine. The best plan was to execute a pincer movement from the north and south, to close somewhere in the rear of the city. The right, or south wing was in very favorable positions to execute their portion of the plan. They occupied a dominant position with fine observation. The left, or north, wing had quite a different situation facing it. It would have to force a crossing of an obstacle, the Moselle River, establish a bridgehead and expand it before the necessary support equipment could be crossed.This being the situation, there would, of necessity, have to be a different time schedule set for each wing of the pincer. The south wing would move out initially on a broad front while the north wing made local actions, which would be exploited. The south would then hold up while the north wing would initiate an aggressive offensive.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThe XX Corps Plan
The corps plan for the carrying out of its portion of the Third Army plan is well pictured in Field Order #12, Hq XX Corps, APO 340, US Army – portions of which I quote.
, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge Base(Field Order #12) a. XX Corps attacks on D-Day, to encircle and destroy the garrison of Metz fortified area, and to seize bridgehead over the Saar River in the vicinity of Saarburg. To reconnoiter in force and seize crossings over the Saar River intact. Prepare to resume attack to the North-East. D-Day : to be announced. Formation, boundaries and objective operations overlay

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge Base5th Infantry Division
(1) On the Corps 0rder, attack to seize the high grounds making effort on the south flank. (2) Within Zone, block all the routes of withdrawal from Metz and prevent any enemy reinforcement of the Metz garrison. (3) Establish and maintain contact with 90-ID and the XII Corps. (4) Protect the bridgehead over the Moselle River with the minimum force, coordinating with 95-ID for use of one Motorized Battalion of that div for bridge protection purposes, on Corps 0rder.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge Base95th Infantry Division
(1) On Corps 0rder, relieve the elements of 10-AD containing enemy bridgehead West of Moselle River. (2) In coordination with 90-ID make vigorous demonstration of crossing Moselle River in the Vicinity of Uckange commencing at 1500 on D-Day continuing for a minimum of fifteen hours. Troops will cross the Moselle River during this demonstration. Demonstration will build up and not be permitted to taper off until time of cessation. (3) In conjunction with demonstration in the vicinity of Uckange reduce the enemy pocket East of Maizières to the Moselle River both efforts to be so coordinated as to create the
, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge Baseindication of a major attack. (4) Vigorously contain en within Zone. Maintain constant pressure on enemy, and rapidly follow up any enemy withdrawal. (5) On Corps 0rder attack and seize the city of Metz. (6) Be prepared on Corps 0rder to assist the 5th Infantry Division in protection of bridges over Moselle River with one Motorized Battalion from the 95th Infantry Division

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge Base90th Infantry Division
(1) Under cover of darkness, night of D Day 1 pass through Task Force Pold and cross Moselle River in vicinity of Koenigsmacker (overlay), coordinating with 95 Infantry Division demonstration vicinity Uckange. (2) Seize high ground (overlay) making main effort on left (East) flank. (3) On Corps 0rder pass 10th Armored Division, 83rd Infantry Division (-1 RCT), and 3rd Cavalry Group (Reinforced), (in 0rder listed) through bridgehead over Moselle River. (4) Within Zone prevent enemy withdrawal from Metz area, and in conjunction with 10 Armored Division prevent enemy reinforcement of Metz garrison. (5) Establish and maintain contact with 5th Infantry Division, 10th Armored Division and 83rd Infantry Division

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge Base10th Armored Division (initially less Div Arty)
(1) Upon relief in Zone containing enemy bridgehead, by 95th Infantry Division, move to initial assembly area vicinity of Mars-la-Tour (overlay). Displace to forward assembly area (to be designated), on Corps
, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseOrder. (2) On Corps 0rder attack through the 90-ID bridgehead to seize high ground, making a main effort on left (east) flank. (3) Upon passage through 90-ID bridgehead, reconnoiter to Saar River with one Combat Command, to seize intact, crossings over River, from Merzig to the south; Priorities of reconnaissance : Merzig area, Pachten – Dillingen area, Saarlautern area. Any bridges seized intact will be protected and held at all cost. (4) Prevent enemy reinforcement of Metz garrison from the east or north-east, and in conjunction with the 90-ID prevent enemy withdrawal from Metz. (5) Establish and maintain contact with the 90-ID, the 83-ID and elements of the XII Corps. (6) Protect the east flank of Corps.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge Base83rd Infantry Division
Flank the XX Corps Arty. (1)(a) 7-FAG, General support Zone of the 90-ID initially reinforcement 10-AD when div crosses Moselles River. (b) 40-FAG, reinforce the 90-ID. (c) 195-FAG, General support Zone of the 90-ID and the 10-AD.

10-AD (Artillery)
General support Zone of the 90-ID under Corps control initially, revert to 10-AD control prior to Div crossing Moselle.

4-TD Group
General support Zone of the 90-ID.

XX Corps Engineers
1139-EC Group direct support River crossing and assault operations of the 90-ID, the 10-AD and the 83-ID.

3-CAV Group
(Task Force Polk) Contain enemy in Zone, securing Line of departure of the 90-ID.

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, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThe Enemy Situation

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThere were four divisions opposing the US XX Corps disposed as follows : the 419.Infantry-Division opposite the north flank of the US 90-ID, held the sector from the Koenigsmacker to the north boundary of the XX Corps;
the 19.Grenadier-Division opposite the southern portion of the US 90-ID sector and northern portion of the US 95-ID sector, held from Koenigssmacher to within 5 miles of Metz;
the 462.Volksgrenadier-Division manning the forts in the immediate Metz area along with some fanatics members of the Officer Candidat Shool from Metz;
the 17.SS-Panzer-Grenadier-Division (to the south), in the US 5-ID sector and other General Headquarters units, numbering about 2000 men were scattered throughout the area.

The 416.Infantry-Division had about 8300 men, the 19.Grenadier-Division about 5000, the 462.Volksgrendadier-Division, officer candidate personnel and special troops number about 9000 and the 17.SS-Panzer-Grenadier-Division had about 6000. All total they numbered about 30000 troops.

On November 1, the XIII.SS-Corps in the Metz defensive sector was replaced by LXXXII.Infantry-Corps, commanded Gen Hoennlein. Gen Kittel, an expert in fortress defense was brought from the eastern front to take command of the 462.Volks-Grenadier-Division. He did not arrive until the US XX Corps had already breached the defense shell.

In the area of operation of the 1st Battalion of the 358-IR (90-ID) was the 1st Battalion of the 74.Infantry-Regiment (German 19.Infantry-Division). This force was about 500 strength. This was numerically larger in quantity that the attacking force. The quality was definitely not of the same caliber.

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, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThe Division Plan

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge Base, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThe 90-ID was to make the main effort on the north, in this pincer plan to reduce Fortress Metz. In accordance with the XX Corps plan the 90-ID initiated a series of plans and actions. The 95-ID quietly relieved the 90-ID from its portion of the holding area around the Metz salient. The 90-ID moved with utmost secrecy to the Morfontaine, Aumetz, Audun, Mercy le Bas quadrilateral. This being accomplished during the date of October 31 to November 2. This move was ostensibly for training. Training was actually initiated, but the division was faced with the knowledge that the date of the operation could be November 6 and not later than the November 9, had scant time for the necessaries in planning and training.

From Thionville northeast to the German boundary the Moselle River flows swiftly along its winding course traversing a comparatively broad river land.
, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge Base
The river itself under normal conditions has an average width of from 300 to 350 feet, with moderately abrupt to gently sloping banks. The ground adjacent to the river is predominantly marshy and during wet periods subject to shooting. This latter condition while posing no restriction to assault boat crossing, definitely limited the development of bridge sites to those points where civilian bridges had previously existed and thus telegraphed our plan for floating bridge construction to the enemy once the crossing had been initiated.

Some 2000 meters north of the river a large wooded expanse, the Foret de Cattenom (Cattenom Forest), containing an adequate road net, provided an excellent divisional assembly area, it sole disadvantage lay in the fact that its forward slope location necessitated the entry therein to the hours of darkness. Between the forest and the river the ground was smooth and devoid of cover and completely under observation form the high ground across the river, more than that it was enfiladed by enemy positions on the bald knob
, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseStromberg, west of the Moselle and just outside the Corps left boundary.

Analysis of the terrain north of the river had a definite influence on the development of the plan and the execution of preliminaries thereto. If secrecy was to be preserved the 90-ID would have to stage into the Foret de Cattenom at nigh and at the latest possible time. Coincident with the foregoing a thickening of the cavalry along the river was indicated to make completely effective the counter-reconnaissance screen which previously had been unable to completely thwart German patrol penetrations.

Of even greater importance however, was the obvious requirement for a limited attack by other forces to drive the Germans from his west bank positions in the Basse, Kontz, Stromberg area prior to the crossing, thereby protecting the assault troops form the flat observation which threatened the success of the assault. The completely open nature of the terrain from the south edge of the assembly area to the river made mandatory the utmost of the silence to permit the establishment of the initial bridgehead prior to dawn.
, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseAcross the river the enemy held terrain was most formidable. For a depth of 1000 to 2000 meters the ground possessed characteristics similar to the flats adjacent to the near bank and then sloped abruptly to the ridges running perpendicular to the river line. In the right of the division sector, on a hill apart, stood the Groupe Fortifié de Koenigsmacker (Fortified Koenigsmacker Group) a Metz type fortress which commanded the entire crossing area.

True, it could be by-passed by leading elements, but upon its speedy neutralization and reduction depended the success of the maneuver. This was a task of the tremendous proportions. Squarely down the middle of the division zone ran a heavily wooded, rugged ridge which contained the main fortifications of the Maginot Line.

While constructed primarily to resist attack from the east, study of the fortifications immediately disclosed that in conformity with universal defense doctrine the defensive areas had been designed for all around and mutual support, and consequently, if properly manned would present a serious obstacle, regardless of the direction of assault. The initial problem was the Metrich Group, the northernmost of the strong points that commanded the river line as superbly as did the Koenigsmacker fortifications.

Further to the east the heights were even more commanding, although not known to possess man-made fortifications. Still eastward, outside the division zone of action, lay the highest ground of all.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseFour axial roads lay within the division zone traversing the valleys between the parallel ridges and providing at first glance, adequate communications, but study soon indicated that their usefulness was seriously limited by their geographical location since they would be commanded for considerable distances in rear of front lines by enemy held side slope positions.

It was requisite that the assault not only be initiated under cover of darkness but also that the leading elements, disregarding the known limitations on night attacks, drive forward and secure by daylight, a toe hold on the foot hills to deny to the enemy close observation of the crossing area.

A railway and highway closely paralleling the river provided initial phase lines, but beyond this point depended on the individual soldier and the control of his leader. However desirable an encircling maneuver might be on the right flank, the commanding position of the Fortified Koenigsmacker Group dictated a frontal assault upon his stronghold.

With bridging operations definitely limited by terrain obstacles to the Cattenom and Gavisse bridge sites, initiations of bridging operations was entirely dependent upon the removal of the enemy’s close observation. And so from the start it was realized by all ranks that ultimate success lay in the hands of the infantrymen ability and courage to attack prepared fortifications, manned by an alert foe.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThe division plan of attack was simple and sound and thoroughly prepared. To develop the maximum strength at the earliest practicable moment, the assault was to be made with two regiment, each with two battalions abreast. Three general crossing areas were possible, astride the town of Rettel, Gavisse then Malling and Cattenom respectfully.

The Rettel area was disregarded because of its proximity to the dominating ground to which no troops could be diverted. Consequently, the left regiment was earmarked to cross in the Gavisse – Malling area and drive rapidly east and southeast to secure the high ground parallel to the east of the Rettel – Kerling lèz Sieck road. The right regiment crossing in the vicinity of Cattenom, was to capture the Koenigsmacker Fortress with minimum force, simultaneously pushing the assault to secure a lodgment on the high ground on the right of the division sector.

Since the town of Koenigsmacker, along the river, was squarely in the middle of the division zone, its inclusion within the objective of either assault regiment would necessitate a divergent effort by that regiment which would only serve to detract form the strength of their respective main effort. As a result Koenigsmacker and the ground immediately adjacent thereto was boxed off as a ‘No Maneuver’ area and turned over to the division artillery to neutralize until such time as the third regiment could mop up.

The third regiment initially held in reserve, was to cross behind either of the assault regiments at the earliest possible moment and swing into action down the Maginot Line ridge to complete and solidify the bridgehead. A corps engineer battalion was to support each of the assault regiments and subsequently provide the necessary bridging while the divisional engineer battalion was kept intact for assault operations with the infantry and general engineer work on the far shore. The 90th Recon Troop, reinforced, was to mop up on the right of the division zone and eventually link up with the secondary crossing of the 95-ID in the Uckange area.

The artillery, greatly reinforced, had a number of tremendous tasks. In consonance with the desire to maintain secrecy to the latest possible moment, no preparation was contemplated, although the battalions were prepared to deliver planned fires on call prior to H-Hour and to counter battery effective counter preparation fires.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseAt H-Hour a heavy program of destruction fires was to be laid on the Koenigsmacker and the Métrich fortifications and on the close-in towns of Basse-Ham, Haute-Ham, Koenigsmacker, Métrich, Malling and Hunting. This is the broad outline, the plan for the establishment of the bridgehead.

It incorporation the recommendations of the unit commanders and division staff and in final form voiced the best considered thoughts of the division in matters both tactical and technical after consideration of all angles. This plan was communicated via conference to commanders and staff down to and including battalions on November 3, it became the point of departure for the preparation and implementation of unit plans.

The Division Preparations

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseWith the closing of the 90-ID in its rear assembly area on November 3 began a period of intense activity. Reconnaissance of the area of future operations was energetically pushed within the limitations made necessary by security considerations.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge Base Artillery positions, engineer equipment parks, infantry assembly areas, routes of approach to the river, crossing zones, and the road net were all reconnoitered and/or chosen by small officer parties who moved as inconspicuously as possible without divisional insignia on their clothing and in vehicles of the 3-CAV Group. This sketchy reconnaissance was not at all desirable but it was felt that the preservation of secrecy regarding the contemplated operations of the 90-ID and its point of impact out weighed the advantages accruing from a more detailed survey of the attack zone. The supporting engineer battalions, upon designation by Corps, were wedded with the 358-IR and 359-IR, chosen as the right and left assault regiments respectively.

Training in basic assault boat technique from the infantry standpoint was given to each soldier since battle casualties during the preceding 5 months had out to a mere handful those former members of the 90-ID who had had amble experience in river crossing operations. Simultaneously, infantry staff and commanders planned to the last detail the composition of the boat waves and individual boat loadings, this included the 357-IR which although earmarked to cross by footbridges or rafts was non-the-less prepared for the eventuality of an assault crossing. When the regiments departed from the rear assembly area, each individual soldier knew his wave and boat number and his chief of party.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseFurther, supply echelons prepared an operational plan and organization designed to maintain, and provide evacuation for their regiments by assault boat and motor boat if vehicular ferries or bridges failed.

The supporting arms and services were equally busy. The Corps of Engineer plan was modified where necessary and integrated with that of the 90-ID. Steps were taken to stage forward additional equipment reserves, DUKWs and accessory supplies to meet unforeseen contingencies. The problems of signal communication were given careful consideration. In addition to a double tactical net, an engineer and a traffic control net were organized an linked laterally.

The laying of wire to and within the forward assembly area was carried out under cover of darkness for several nights prior to the target date. Weighted cable was prepared beforehand to permit bridging of the river gaps away form projected bridges. Realizing the unusual demands which would be placed on radio until such time adequate bridging could be provided, stacks of batteries were accumulated. At the divisional level, supply agencies were prepared for the movement of necessaries considerably further forward than normal to allow unit echelons to concentrate their efforts forward of regimental dumps.

The 90-ID’s crossing was phased to follow by one day a great air strike designed to neutralize the major Metz Fortresses and other critical areas in the attack zone, provided and air strike came by the November 8 (inclusive), in any event, the assault was to take place on November 9. The 5 and 6 of November were days of heavy rain, thereby granting 48 valuable hours for continuation of preparation. At divisional headquarters, loose ends were gradually tied together and with regimental plans firm, the field order was issued at 2200, November 6.

Movement to forward assembly areas was complicated by the great number of units involved, both division and corps (all of whom had to move at night), coupled with the inadequate and poor road net. The march table, after closed coordination with corps, was based on the movement of the division on the nights of D-3/2 and D-2/1. As it developed the successive postponement of D-Day permitted the scheduling of the move over a period of three nights. The artillery displacing on the nights of November 5/6 and 6/7 was completely positioned by daylight on November 7. This move, accomplished without benefit of moon and under incessant rain on slippery, narrow roads. The remainder of the division displaced on the night of November 7/8, a move of even greater difficulty. The distance involved being too great for marching, the displacement was made by marching and shuttling and involved two round trips for the attached transportation.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseBy dawn, on November 8, the division and all supporting elements had closed within the protective cover of the Cattenom Forest and the defilade area to the immediate rearward thereof.

November 7, had been a dark and rainy day and the target date was definitely set for November 9. And so, on November 8, the initiation date for the XII Corps offensive to the south became a day of final preparation and coordination for tomorrows assault. Artillery battalions registered skillfully with but one gun per battalion, prepared their final data. Communications were extended forward and laterally throughout the division area. Lower echelon commanders made their reconnaissance of routes of approach and crossing areas and surveyed form a distance their far bank objectives. Personnel concerned with traffic circulation and bridge control received final instructions and departed for their post. In the early afternoon all men were briefed on the division mission, its importance to the army scheme and their individual parts in it.

The Battalion

The part of the 1/358-IR was to play in this overall picture of the reduction of Fortress Metz, was that of reducing Fort Koenigsmacker. This fort was an important point in the northern portion of the Metz defenses. This fort was one of the Maginot Line group. The 1/358-IR was relieved from its present mission of the containing a portion of the salient around Metz and moved back to an area of barracks near Morfontaine, along with the rest of the regiment. Here in this area, from November 3 until November 7, training was conducted on dry run river crossings, boat loading and methods of paddling in conjunction with the engineers.

There, training was conducted on the assault of fortified positions and areas. The old fortifications of the Maginot Line, in that area, were used in conjunction with this training. The battalion was refitted in equipment, all lost or destroyed equipment replaced and all weapons put up to perfect working order. During this period of training, the men and the larger part of the officers did not know for what specific mission they were being trained. The general conclusion was a river crossing and attack of a fortified position to tie in with the training being taken.

It was not until the last day in this area that maps, aerial photographs and large scale engineer sketches were issued down to all levels, which designated Fort Koenigsmacker as the task before the 1/358-IR. This was on November 7. The crossing date had been set for sometime prior to daylight on November 9. This was during the night D-1 for the overall XX Corps operation. The regimental plan was to cross the 1/358 on the right at the town of Basse Ham, over which Fort Koenigsmacker looked, and take that fort by storm. The 3/358 was to cross opposite Koenigsmacker (not to be confused with the fort of the same name). The 2/358 was to remain in reserve, initially, until the town of Koenigsmacker had been taken, then cross and relieve the 3/358 who would contain the town.

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, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseAfter the regimental plan was known and extensive reconnaissance accomplished, Lt Col C. A. Lytle, then the battalion commander, issued this plan. The battalion would cross in four waves, the first wave being made up of two platoons form each of the two assaulting rifle companies, Able and Charlie.The second wave would consist of the Hqs Co group of each of the assault companies the attached engineer unit, the reserve platoons of the two companies and attached heavy machine gun platoon. The third wave was made up entirely of Baker Co, along with the battalion command group. The fourth wave was to be composed of Dog Co (-), Hqs Co and the Medical Detachment.

Each unit, upon reaching the enemy shore, was to have a particular job to do. It was felt by the Battalion CO, that the town of Basse Ham would have to be taken along with the fort since it could be such a thorn in the side, if by-passed. This would also leave an open right flank for the battalion, as well as the division. The town, in itself, would provide and excellent base form which to operate on the fort. It also provided a perfect set-up for the aid station to care for the wounded, of which there were many, as later proven.

It was on the suggestion of Capt McEvoy, the battalion surgeon, that the plan to move the battalion surgeon and aid station across with the fourth wave was incorporated with the original planning. This was done only by the 1/358. It was later proven that this was a very wise move.

The further plan was to have Able Co assemble on the railroad tracks. It was a definite feature that could not be by-passed. Charlie Co was to turn right upon crossing, and capture Basse Ham prior to daylight. This was to be done by sending one platoon to the south end of town, via the enemy side of the river, and set up a blocking screen.

One platoon was to make a sweep down the main street of town from the north, to kill or capture all Germans possible and drive the remainder out the south end of town, where the platoon there would take care of them. Baker Co upon crossing was to join Able Co on the railroad tracks, here organize and prepare to assault the fort at the break of day. This plan was disseminated to the various commanders for their study and orientation.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThe battalion moved, by shuttle from its rear assembly at Morfontaine, beginning in the mid-afternoon of November 7, to Hayange. At this town a hot meal was served for supper. This was about 1900 in the evening. After this brief halt and nourishment the battalion moved on by shuttle to the rear, west of the Cattenom Forest, where the battalion detrucked and moved by foot to previously reconnoitered assembly areas within the forest. This was completed by about 2100. The troops bedded down for the remainder of the night.

This was to be the last restful sleep for about the next two weeks. Throughout the next day, November 8, a more thorough recon was made by company commanders. The battalion commander and staff completed the last minute preparations. The boat loads were rechecked, equipment rechecked and all the last minute personal details taken care of. Arrangements and coordination had been made with the 179-ECB, supporting this operation to drop the assault boats at the little village of Husange. There the infantry and engineers would meet and begin the hand-carry of the boats to the river, about 1500 yards distance. This was later proven to be a mistake, because of the long haul.

All unit commanders were taken to a vantage point in the edge of the Cattenom Forest, which overlooked the entire field of operations. From here could be seen the point at which the boats would be picked up, the area to be traversed en route to the river, the crossing area, the assembly point along the railroad, the town of the Basse Ham and the rising hill mass to the east upon which sat Fort Koenigsmacker.

At this point they were thoroughly oriented and all last minute coordination between the battalion and company commanders was made. The unit commanders, in turn, bought all NCO‘s down to and including squad leaders, to this same vantage point. At this time the same thorough briefing was given and all questions concerning the operation answered as far as possible. This was truly one of the few times in which the entire battalion knew what it had to do and had seen the area over which the operation was to take place.

About 1700, November 8, the battalion commander assembled the battalion in a group, in the Cattenom Forest. Here he went over the entire plan, as previous given, very thoroughly, and laid down a standard that he expected every individual to reach in the impending operation. He, being a very forceful and courageous character, instilled in every man the necessity of accomplishing the mission ahead.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThe companies were released to return to their company areas to get as much rest as possible prior to the departure from the assembly areas. There was not much sleeping that night for thinking of the operation to come was of utmost priority. The departure from the assembly area was scheduled at 0100. The plan to be followed has been presented and the happenings prior to the actual jump off enumerated. I now wish to describe the terrain and features that the battalion was to operate over. The Cattenom Forest, in which the battalion had been bivouacked, ranged from 193 to 160 meters in height and was very heavily wooded. This furnished perfect cover for the bivouac.

After leaving the forest to the east and southeast the ground tapered off to a flat of about 150 meters. This extended from the towns Garche, Keocking, Husange and Cattenom to the near bank of the Moselle as a table top. This area was devoid of cover and afforded little protection. There was no cover for boat assembly points along the river. This was the reason for selecting Husange as the pick-up point for the boats, thus the long haul to the river bank.

The area across the river, on the enemy side, was essentially the same as on the near side, extending as far in as the railroad track. Just to the southeast and east of Basse Ham, the ground began to rise to form the heights upon which Fort Koenigsmacker rested. This rise was almost abrupt, rising from 150 meters to 210 meters, in the distance of about 400 meters. This ridge-like peak was the dominant feature in the area. From this could be viewed the entire flat area extending over to the Cattenom Forest.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThionville, approximately 9 kilometers to the south, as well as all intervening ground could be viewed with ease. The view to the north extended to Métrich. This piece of terrain was not so decisive as was the fort that rested on its crest.

Fort Koenigsmacker was a member of the Maginot group that tie in with the Métrich Fort some 3600 meters to its northeast, on the east of the Moselle River. Some 5000 meters to the southwest was Fort de Illange, a sister fort of the Maginot group. The three above mentioned forts completely commanded the Moselle basin and the parallel highways extending along either side. In addition to these mentioned the main Maginot belt extended from these positions to the southeast to Boulay. There were some 19 forts in this group.

Each fort’s artillery tied in with that of the other. A description of Fort Koenigsmacker is typical of the general layout of the forts of the Maginot line. The fort mounted 4 100 MM guns in its top. These were seated in completely revolving turrets of steel of 3 to 4 inches in thickness. The casemates, that had exposed sides, were constructed so as to be covered by machine guns emplaced in adjoining wings with sufficient traverse to interlock with its opposite machine gun. All approaches to the steel doors of the forts were blocked by a complete barrier of spiked steel fence about 7-8 feet in height. This fence was covered by machine gun emplacements.

The general shape of the fort was five sided. To the outside of the main fort structure was a series of shelter points numbered from 1 through 8. These consisted of one story concrete pill box projections. Each entrance was protected by a guard room. The corridors inside these shelter points let to a staircase which, in turn, led to the basement floors and underground corridors of the main fort.
, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseIn the top of the main concrete fort structure was a series of blister-looking affairs that were armored observation posts. These had a series of slits around them from which very safe observation could be had. Artillery fire had no effect on them.

To the outside of the shelter points was a complete trench of a depth to permit a man to stand and fire. This completely circled the fort. Within this trench firing stations were dug so that a man did not have to silhouette himself while firing.

To the outside of this trench, on the forward slope and extending completely around the hill side, was a barbed wire entanglement of from five to twelve aprons.

These were of the permanent type entanglements with the heavier aprons facing the east side of the fort. These forts were built, originally, as a defense against Germany. In some areas of the entanglements existed moats that were to be filled with water and various obstructions but had not been filled.

This, generally, was the main obstacle to be overcome by the battalion.

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, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge Base

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge Base(Source Wikipedia) The Fortifications of Metz, a city in northeastern France, are extensive, due to the city’s strategic position near the border of France and Germany. After the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, the area was annexed by the newly created German Empire in 1871 by the Treaty of Frankfurt and became a Reichsland. The German Army decided to build a fortress line from Mulhouse to Luxembourg to protect their new territories. The centerpiece of this line was the Moselstellung between Metz and Thionville, in Lorraine.

The fortifications around Metz consisted of casemates, concrete barracks, infantry strong points, and concrete batteries, equipped with rotating steel turrets (100–150 mm). Each position was surrounded by several ditches, or concrete trenches, with shelters and observation cupolas. A large barbed wire belt, defended by machine gun and rifle positions, completed the defensive system. Forts had usually several large blockhouse style barracks. These had 3-meter thick reinforced concrete roofs with 2-meter thick walls. They were partially buried under as much as 6 m (20 ft) of compacted earth. Underground tunnels connected all of the structures. The fort also had deep wide trenches, some as much as 9 m (30 ft) in both dimensions. They were also surrounded by a thick layer of barbed wire entanglements.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseEach fort had 2–4 batteries, equipped with hydraulic rotating steel turrets (100–150 mm). In the summer of 1944, only 10% of the batteries were fully operational. Most of those were in Fort Driant (Feste Kronprinz) and Fort Jeanne d’Arc (Feste Kaiserin). By November, during the battle of Metz, the German troops had managed to get about 50% of the guns operational in most of the forts listed below. These batteries were lacking range tables, missing sights and other equipment to make the guns fully operational.
Below is a list of the fortifications that exist around the area of Metz. Because they switched hands quite often, the French names are listed as well as any applicable German ones. In parentheses is the construction period.

Forts of the first belt

The first, inner belt of fortifications were completed by the French just prior to the Franco-Prussian War and were in service during the Siege of Metz from September 3 to October 23 1870. The forts were in a ring approximately 4000 meters out from the city center, and were (anti-clockwise from the south) :

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseFort de Plappeville / Fort Alvensleben, September 7, 1940
Fort de Saint-Privat (1870) / Fort Prinz August von Württemberg (1872–1875)
Fort de Queuleu (1867–1870) / Fort Goeben (1871–1890)
Fort des Bordes (1870) / Fort Zatrow (1874–1875)
Fort de Saint-Julien (1867–1870) / Fort Manteuffel (1871–1891)
Fort Gambetta / Fort Hindersin (1879–1881)
Fort Déroulède / Fort Kameke (1876–1879)
Fort Decaen / Fort Schwerin (1878–1880)
Fort de Plappeville (1867–1870) / Fort Alvenslebenn (1871–1891)
Groupe Mont St. Quentin (1867–1870) / Feste Prinz Friedrich-Karl (1872–1892)
Fort Diou (1867–1870) / Ostfort (1872–1892)
Fort Girardin / Fort Mannstein (1872–1892)

Forts of the second belt

The second, outer belt of fortifications were completed by the Germans prior to the First World War but saw little service. Prior to the Second World War they were incorporated by the French into the Maginot Line defenses, but again saw little action. In October 1944, while occupied by the Germans, the fortifications were assaulted and captured by the US 3-A during the Battle of Metz. The forts were in an offset ring from 8–10 kilometers from the city, and were (anticlockwise from the south) :

Fort l’Aisne (Feste Wagner), 1904-1912
Fort l’Aisne / Feste Wagner (1904–1912)
Fort l’Yser / Feste Prinzregent Luitpold (1907–1914)
Fort La Marne / Feste Generalfeldmarschall Freiherr von der Goltz (1907–1916)

(anticlockwise from the north) :

Fort Lorraine / Feste Lothringen (1899–1905)
Fort François de Guise / Feste Leipzig (1907–1912)
Fort Jeanne d’Arc / Feste Kaiserin (1899–1905)
Fort Driant / Feste Kronprinz (1899–1905)
Fort Verdun / Feste Haeseler (1899–1905), (also Feste Graf Haeseler)

The Seven Dwarves

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThese are a series of small defensive emplacements built between 1912 and 1916 in a line between Driant and Jeanne d’Arc. The name for them was created by the Americans of the U.S. Third Army during the Battle of Metz in the Second World War. They are sometimes (mistakenly) referred to as forts, and their name alludes to their weak defensive strength. From south to north they are :

Marival bunker
Vaux Southern point of support
Vaux Northern point of support
Bois-la-Dame† bunker
Jussy Southern point of support
Jussy Northern point of support
Saint Hubert point of support

History – Fort Koenigsmacker

Begun in 1908, Fort Koenigsmacker was incomplete at the outbreak of war in 1914. It saw no action during World War I, as Thionville remained well within German lines for the duration of the war. With the Compiègne armistice of 1918, Lorraine was given to France and the fort became a French property. The three Thionville forts became known as the Fortified Group of Thionville.

The Fort de Koenigsmacker was integrated into the Fortified Sector of Thionville of the Maginot Line in the 1930s, serving as a sub-sector command post and backing up the newer Maginot ouvrages that were built about halfway between Thionville and the border with Luxembourg. The short 105-MM guns were replaced by 105-MM long guns removed from the German fortifications of Metz. The artillery range was thus increased from 9700 meters (6.0 mi) to 12700 meters (7.9 mi).

In 1940 Koenigsmacker was the command post for the 167th Fortress Infantry Regiment (RIF), which manned the nearby Maginot ouvrages. During the Battle of France the Thionville area was bypassed and encircled by German forces, with the Maginot and earlier fortifications seeing little action.

Koenigsmacker overlooks the crossing of the Moselle at Cattenom. During the Lorraine Campaign of World War II, the US 90-ID crossed the flooded Moselle early on November 9 1944. Fire from Koenigsmacker destroyed bridging equipment and harassed boat-borne troops, but elements of the 358-IR established a lodgement on the east bank and infiltrated the area of the fort before daybreak. The initial American assault took the German garrison, manned by the 74.Regiment of the 19.Volksgrenadier-Division, by surprise, but the German resistance quickly became more effective.

American combat engineers took over the assault, using explosives to destroy or seal openings and ventilation shafts. The engineers used such a quantity of explosives that they ran out, and had to be replenished by an airdrop. The fort’s 100-MM guns could not be depressed to deal with the close-in attackers, but kept up fire on the nearby US formations. By nightfall the Americans had occupied a portion of the fort’s surface.

The next morning, Charlie 358 attacked from the south, encountering a fortified ditch. Able and Baker Cos meanwhile occupied the fort’s surface and continued with attacks using demolition charges, while the fort kept up artillery fire on American units trying to pass by the fort. On November 11, much of the fort had been suppressed, but its guns continued to fire. A relief patrol of 145 Germans attempting to relieve the fort was ambushed and captured. On November 12 an assault by George 358 coincided with a decision by the German garrison to evacuate. Surrounded, the Germans surrendered. More than 300 Germans were captured or casualties, with 111 American casualties. After the war the site remained military property, but was not used. The fort is abandoned and partly stripped.

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, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThe Assault

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThe first wave was scheduled to start its crossing at 0330. To meet this schedule the battalion moved from its assembly area in the Cattenom Forest at 0100. The order of companies was the same order as set up in the planning stages for the various waves.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThe 1st wave elements leading, 2nd wave and so on. The march from the assembly area to Husange, the boat pickup point, was about 2,5 miles. At this point the 179-ECB had dropped the 40 boats to be used by the 1/358. There were three engineers with each boat load of twelve infantrymen.

Husange was the last cover to be had. When the troops left this pint it was wide open. The first wave pickup their boats and started the 1500 yard carry to the river bank. The move was to be secret, yet you could hear the muffled ourses of the men, as they stumbled along in the pitch blackness with their individual loads of weapons, ammunition and rations, as well as this cumbersome assault boat. The men had to rest at intervals en route to the river bank.

This long haul was a mistake, yet there was no other arrangement to be made and maintain the desired secrecy.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThe first wave entered the water at 0330 and crossed without mishap except that the rising river, caused by the excess rain, had carried them some 1000 yards further down stream than contemplated. On previous occupation of Thionville by the 90-ID the river current had been charted but the rising condition had made a difference. This condition of the river had also inundated the prepared positions on the enemy side of the river. They were not manned. It had also permitted the boats floating over-mine fields that would have normally been exposed. The river was a friend at this particular time. So far, not a shot had been fired. The second wave had the same good fortune as the first wave. The enemy had not yet discovered the crossing. Everything had gone as clock work to now. Able Co had formed on the railroad track, Charlie Co had also organized and was preparing for its assault on Basse Ham.

There was, however, a hitch with the third wave. The engineer having returned from the first and second wave did not wait for the third wave. They, thinking their job had been done, left the boats. It was about a hour before the third wave, manning their own boats, had succeeded in crossing. They reached the railroad tracks and organized along with Able Co. That put Able & Baker Cos assembled and ready to move out for the fort at daybreak. Charlie Co was ready to assault the town. The fourth wave, not having heard from the third wave, sent a five man search party to see what the cross-up was. They found the remainder of the boats, not used by the third wave, unattended. Due to the delay, the fourth wave did not complete its crossing until about 0715.
, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge Base
The Germans had, by this time, discovered the crossing and had begun to shell the crossing area. As a result a part of the Mortar Platoon of Dog Co did not make the crossing and was forced to move back to Cattenom.

In the meantime, Able and Baker 358, after assembly on the railroad track, moved out in a column of platoons over the open area to the woods that surrounded Fort Koenigsmacker. Here complete reorganization took place. Able Co formed up pin a skirmish line. Here they waited until the previously designated time for the coordinated assault to arrive. That was 0715. Charlie Co had reorganized and sent one platoon to the east of Basse Ham, between the town and river, on around to out the road leading southwest out of town and set up a block, to catch any Germans that might be driven out that edge of town.

At a predestinated time, the remainder of Charlie Co made a night attack of the town, sweeping down the main street of town, clearing the buildings on either side, as they progressed. This was a complete surprise to the Germans within the town. Some were in the houses in bed and had to be awakened upon capture. Only those on guard put up any resistance, which was fierce but momentary.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThe entire town had been cleared prior to daylight, with the exception of a few snipers located in some outlying buildings to the east of town. These were soon neutralized setting up the Battalion Aid Station, which was making a crossing of the river simultaneous to the attack on the town. There was, evidently, no communication between the forces in the fort and those in the town, for this action had been completed without a response from the fort.

At 0715 Able and Baker Cos, from their respective positions, started their assault with two platoons abreast in each company. They charged up the gradual incline, which grew steeper and steeper as they progressed. The assault passed over the barbed wire entanglements and was progressing on toward the system of trenches that surrounded the crest of the hill. The entire action, to this point, had been accomplished without a shot being fired at them. It was not until Able Co had come within sight of the trenches that a sentry in an armored observation post fired on Able Co and gave the alarm.

Able Co had reached the trenches and took cover therein. Baker Co had been stopped just short of the barbed wire. At the sound of the alarm, 50 MM mortar fire began to fall on the positions. The fire could be brought down on the fort with no harm to the occupants, but the attackers on the outside, began to take casualties. This fire had been, previously zeroed in from positions within the main fort and also from other adjoining forts.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseBy this time, all the troops of the battalion had crossed the river that were going to get across for the rest of the day. Heavy mortar fire, also, began to fall into the town of Basse Ham. The troops were in the cellars and in the buildings, so the fire was ineffective, as far as casualties were concerned. It restricted movement somewhat. It was now about 0900 and Charlie Co had completely cleared the town and had pushed a platoon out the highway to the southwest of town, to occupy tons outlying buildings. They were to serve as a flank protection for the battalion, as well as, for the division. This was an open flank, all the way to Thionville, where the 95-ID had elements.

Now, we find the battalion disposed as follows :

1. In Basse Ham, there was Charlie Co protecting the town and the south flank of the division, one platoon of machine guns from Dog Co was attached.
2. The battalion aid station was in operation in a secure basement at the main intersection of the town.
3. Battalion Headquarters Co and the command group were in operation in the town.
4. Dog Co was intact, save one section of 81-MM mortars, that had been forced back from the crossing site by mortar fire. The mortars that were across were set up in the town to cover the right flank of the battalion. They could not be the value to fire on the fort, itself, in support of the infantry.
5. Able Co with one platoon of heavy machine guns attached and Baker Co with attached engineers, were disposed around the west and southwest edges of the fort.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseFrom these dispositions, a systematic reduction of the main fort was to take place. The rifle troops were taking a heavy pounding from the mortar fire that was falling on the fort. The observers could observe for the armored observation post, located on top of the fort, and bring the observed fire down, directly on the position without harm to the observer. The job then, was to first, eliminate the observation post. The attack could not move on until this had been done.

This phase of the attack was spearheaded and organized by Lt Neal and Lt Patrick from Able Co and Lt Martin, with the attached engineers. Each of the Able Co officers lead assault teams assisted by Lt Martin. Under cover of fire from remaining troops of Able Co they would place a seventeen pound charge of, the then new explosive, Composition C2 at the base of these Observation Posts. This very potent explosive had a devastating effect on these structures, as well as, inhabitants. The western portion of the fort was worked on for the remainder of the day in the same systematic method as above described. The observation post on the west edge of the fort, as well as, the sally and shelter points of this portion of the fort, were neutralized throughout the day.

Able attacked the fort as an assault and overran about one third of the fort. The Germans would merely withdraw into the inner portions of the fort and call down devastation mortar fire on the attackers.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThis forced a withdrawal to the cover of the original positions in the trenches. In this murderous hail of mortar fire throughout the day, 40 casualties were assessed. During the day Capt Denning, Baker 358 Commander had been killed. Capt Campbell then a Lieutenant, took command of the company. Baker Co had not made a great deal fo progress on the south of the fort. It was ordered to move from its present position, around to the west of the fort, and join Able Co, where the greatest progress was being made. This was to the accomplished during the night of November 9/10.

The first day saw the town of Basse Ham fall to Charlie Co. Able & Baker Cos successfully reached the fort and had begun an assault. The technique of blasting the Germans out of their stronghold had been learned. This technique was to be used to great advantage the following day.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThe aid station that had come across and set up it Basse Ham was paying dividends. The casualties, from the first day, were heavy and serious. The supplies of ammunition, plasma, medicine and food were planned on the assumption that a bridge would soon be installed. The Moselle River was, initially, a help in that its risen condition inundated the enemy positions on the river bank and also permitted the assault waves to float over the normally exposed mines.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseIt was now becoming more of a formidable fore than the Germans. During the day the water had expanded from its normal 300-350 foot width to, from 600-800 feet and by noon had reached widths of 800 yards. The engineers had started their bridging operations, first working in knee deep water, in hip deep and then in waist deep water. Finally, the current became so wicked that bridging operations were ceased completely. Six battalions of infantry were across the river, fighting the enemies’ armor and fortified areas with hand carried weapons.

The waters continued to rise until the entire flat area, from the railroad tracks on the east side of the Moselle, to the edges of Garche, Koecking and Cattenom on the west side of the river were flooded.

This was the condition that existed for the division as nightfall came. The battalion was low on ammunition, explosives had been expended, rations gad to be gad, the aid station had to be replenished with the plasma and all medical supplies, The wounded, some in serious conditions, needed to be evacuated. The tremendous job of re-supply was started, as soon as, nightfall began.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThis was done by the battalion drivers, company drivers, supply personnel from all companies and any attached engineers Sharidan and Martin, the battalion motor officer and battalion S-4 respectively on the west shore and Lt Autrey, S-3 on the east shore. It was a tortuous job in the dark of night with a river on the rampage. The boats would have to be loaded and floated back to the small towns, that the water had reached, pushed through the shallow water until the current became too strong, then try to row and navigate the rest of the way. Through the untiring efforts of these men left on the supply job, the battalion received supplies that night. Due to the tortuous condition of the river and its swift current, which had overturned several boats, it was decided not to attempt evacuation of wounded that night. They were better off where they were. It was hoped that a bridge would be completed in the morning. The remainder of the mortar platoon from Dog Co completed the crossing during the night.

The situation on the following morning, November 10, was as follows : assault was to continue on the fort; Baker 358 had moved around and had taken over the left half of what had been Able 358’s sector, the day before; in the town of Basse Ham, the platoon of Charlie 358 that had moved out on the extreme southwest end of Basse Ham had been out off during the night by a German force that had come back into that portion of town. They had occupied the buildings just to the southwest of the small stream, that ran through Basse Ham. This platoon from Charlie 358 was in a bad situation for a little while.

Capt Charles Watson, then Lieutenant, the forward observer from Cannon Co, established an observation post in the church steeple, overlooking the houses that the Germans had occupied. His mission was to support the relief of the Charlie Co platoon. With one gun of Cannon Co, he began registering. His OP was on line gun-target and at any moment one of his own shells could have clipped his OP from under him. With systematic precision, each house, one after the other, was thoroughly obliterated. Upon further investigation dead Germans were found all over. With this, the platoon of Charlie Co was relieved. For the remainder of the day Charlie Co protected Basse Ham.

From positions as now disposed, Able and Baker 358 resumed the assault on the main fort. Able Co consolidated and took the right half of what had been their entire zone the day before. When both companies were in position the attack jumped off. By noon of November 10 all of the armored observation posts, on top of the fort, in the zone covered by Able and Baker Cos, had been knocked out, never failing to render harsh attackers, taking its toll. The idea was struck on by Lt Neal, of Able Co, to locate the ventilator shafts of the various underground bunkers systems. This being done ten gallons of gasoline was dumped down into one of them and a M-14 Thermite hand grenade followed. A terrific roar and concussion followed, with screams and moans coming from within. This had definitely done some good. The concussion was so great, that a body was blown from the inner parts of the fort, out through the opened ventilator shaft.

This procedure was taken up by the rest of the troops on the fort, along with continued use of great quantities of “C2”. There was such a great amount needed on the massive structures of the fort that the supply was soon near the diminishing point. An urgent call was put in for a refreshed supply of explosive to continue the operation before the day was over. This was necessary because, as each strong point would be neutralized, the enemy would move deeper into the fort, into other portions not yet blasted. They would then infiltrate back after the pressure was relieved.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThe re-supply of the needed explosives, could not be made rapidly enough by the river route, so five liaison planes were dispatched with 500 pounds of explosives. These planes flew down over the battalion positions and dropped their loads. They hit, squarely, in the battalion positions. This was the answer to the flood bound dog faces prayer. With this added explosive each company continued the destruction in their particular zones.

Able Co had managed to blast its way into some of the bunkers super structure and tunnels. Entrance could not be made further underground, due to the rubble, and complete blackness existing within the tunnels. A plan of the underground structure was not in the possession of the troops, so it would have been very foolish to try to mop up below, when so much good was being done above. This offered protection, how ever.

During the late evening of the second day the Germans initiated a counterattack, from the northeast corner of the fort, which they still occupied, with a force of approximately 50 men. This assault was repulsed, without loss of ground, with the small arms of the 1st battalion personnel. The enemy suffered about 28 killed in this costly little escapade. The remainder withdrew back into the supposed safety of the fort. At the end of the second day, Nov 10, the two rifle companies were displaced on the top of the fort as shown.

The situation within the division was very critical. The Moselle had still denied a bridge at either the Cattenom or Gravisse-Malling crossing sites.

, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge BaseThe river had gotten to a width of 1 ½ miles at various sectors. The supply of the battalion had to be accomplished by the same means as the previous night. All available personnel, not actually involved in holding a position on the fort was put into play, in carrying rations, ammunition, explosives and medical supplies from the river’s edge, to the positions on the fort. The same supply personnel were doing a herculean job of getting them across by boat. Some of the wounded had gotten to such a condition that evacuation was necessary, of else they would die. Those that had to be evacuated were tied to litters and transported by boat across the still treacherous Moselle. The others continued to await the completion of a bridge.

On the third day, November 11, Charlie Co was moved from Basse Ham to the fort. It took up the position occupied by Baker Co on the 1st day of the assault. The mortar platoon of Baker Co and the personnel of Battalion Headquarter Co were given the mission of taking over the responsibility of Charlie Co in the town. The fort area was divided into three zones. After all companies were in position the final all out assault on the fort was to begin.

The assault was spearheaded by Able Co. The various bunkers, casemates and strong points were reduced by the same expedient as employed the previous two days. Large quantities of gasoline, followed by a M-14 Thermite or M-15 white phosphorous grenade were used. Large quantities of C2 explosive were also put into play. Around noon of this day a message was received from division Headquarters, with the order to withdraw from the fort, since it was such a costly objective in both men and material. The answer was returned by Lt Neal. ‘This fort is ours! I could not ask my men to leave here now. They are more determined than I to finish the job’. With this the assault was pushed with fresh vigor. The Germans wee squeezed and blown into an ever constriction smaller portion of the fort.

At 1600 the remnants of the force holding the fort attempted a mass exit through one of the outlying shelter points in the northeast corner of the fort. They ran back into a force from George Co that had been left behind by the 2/358, as flank protection. There were 372 able bodied krauts in the force. All were taken prisoner by George Co and were completely out of fight, after the three day episode just completed. The 1/358 was very put out about not getting to make this catch, after the ‘hell’ experience in taking the fort. The battalion estimated that it had killed or captured about 500 Germans, (included, is this 372 above mentioned). This was the entire 1.Battalion, 74.Infantry-Regiment, 19.Infantry- Division. The casualties in the 1/358 were : 21 killed, 85 wounded and 5 missing.

At 1350, November 12, the battalion passed to Regimental reserve. Charlie Co remained on the fort, Baker Co out posted the area between the town and the fort and Able Co held Basse ham, covering the right flank of the regiment.

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, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge Base

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, 90-ID (1/358-IR) Fort Koenigsmacker – (11/44), EUCMH Knowledge Base

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