SS-Hauptsturmführer Josef Mengele – (Angel of Death) – (War Crimes)

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When they opened the door to our cattle car, our mother became very frightened, Stay with me, children, she told us, refusing to let go of our hands. But hen some prisoners told her in Yiddish, Tell them you have twins. There is a Dr. Mengele here who wants twins. (Hedvah & Leah Stern)

As I clutched my mother’s hand, an SS man hurried by shouting, Twins, twins! He stopped to look at us. Miriam and I looked very much alike. We were wearing similar clothes. Are they twins? he asked my mother. Is that good? replied my mother. He nodded yes. They are twins, she said. (Eva Mozes)

Josef Mengele had a strange fascination with twins, and spent much of his time at Auschwitz studying the twins. Often times his findings or his experiments had very little justification and were conducted solely for Mengele’s pleasure. Mengele would systematically document measurements of the twins, often comparing them. He would also test the effects of various drugs and poisons on one twin and use the other twin as a ‘control’ group in order to make his experiments pseudo-scientific. After these experiments he would kill both of the twins in order to dissect and compare the bodies. Mengele even tried to sew together two children together in an attempt to create Siamese twins. The hands of the children became badly infected where the veins were sected together. These are just a few examples of the atrocities committed by Josef Mengele. Of over 1500 pairs of twins, only about 200 of these twins survived Mengele and the war. (Source Texts and Images above : The Holocault Online Organization)

A group of SS Officers has gathered in front of a building of the SS-Solahütte recreation home. The village, which is located about 30 kilometers south of Auschwitz, was very popular with concentration camp supervisors. From the left : SS-Hauptsturmfuhrer Josef Kramer, SS-KZ Dr Josef Mengele, SS-Obersturmbannführer Rudolf Höss, Camp Auschwitz Commander, Richard Baer, ​​his adjutant Karl Höcker and a stranger. The picture comes from the private photo album Höcker. (I am not sure about this caption)

Little Princess – Seven-year-old Jacqueline Morgenstern, later victim of tuberculosis medical experiments at Neuengamme KZ. She was murdered just before the liberation of the camp. Paris, 1940. (Schwarberg) (Source : www.ushmm.org)
Josef Mengele was born the eldest of three children on 16 March 1911 to Karl and Walburga (Hupfauer) Mengele in Günzburg, Bavaria, Germany. His younger brothers were Karl Jr and Alois. Mengele’s father was founder of the Karl Mengele & Sons company, producers of farm machinery. Mengele did well in school and developed an interest in music, art, and skiing. He completed high school in April 1930 and went on to study medicine at Goethe University Frankfurt and philosophy at the University of Munich. Munich was the headquarters of the Nazi Party. In 1931 Mengele joined the Stahlhelm, Bund der Frontsoldaten, a paramilitary organization that was in 1934 absorbed into the Nazi Sturmabteilung (Storm Detachment; SA).
 
In 1935, Mengele earned a PhD in anthropology from the University of Munich. In January 1937, at the Institute for Hereditary Biology and Racial Hygiene in Frankfurt, he became the assistant to Dr. Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer, a scientist conducting genetics research, with a particular interest in twins. As an assistant to von Verschuer, Mengele focused on the genetic factors resulting in a cleft lip and palate or cleft chin. His thesis on the subject earned him a doctorate in medicine in 1938. Both of his degrees were later rescinded by the issuing universities.
 
In a letter of recommendation, von Verschuer praised Mengele’s reliability and his ability to verbally present complex material in a clear manner. The American author Robert Jay Lifton notes that Mengele’s published works did not deviate much from the scientific mainstream of the time, and would probably have been viewed as valid scientific efforts even outside the borders of Nazi Germany.


SS-Hauptsturmfuhrer-Josef-MengelUS Department of Justice, Criminal Division
In the Matter of Josef Mengele
(Original Archive)
Report to the Attorney General
United States of America
October 1992
Exhibits Prepared by : Office of Special Investigations Criminal Division, Neal M. Sher Director, Eli M. Rosenbaum Principal Deputy Director

Josef Mengele was an SS physician, infamous for his inhumane medical experimentation upon concentration camp prisoners at Auschwitz. Born on March 16, 1911, in Günzburg, near Ulm, he was the eldest son of Karl Mengele, a prosperous manufacturer of farming implements. In 1935, Mengele earned a Ph.D. in physical anthropology from the University of Munich. In January 1937, at the Institute for Hereditary Biology and Racial Hygiene in Frankfurt, he became the assistant of Dr Otmar von Verschuer, a leading scientific figure widely known for his research with twins. In 1937 Mengele joined the Nazi Party. The following year, the same year in which he received his medical degree, he joined the SS.

In June 1940, Mengele was drafted into the army, and thereafter volunteered into the medical service of the Combat Waffen-SS. Although documentation is scant and often contradictory regarding Mengele’s activities between this time and early 1943, it is clear that he first functioned as a medical expert for the Race and Settlement Main Office [Rasse und Siedlungshauptamt, or RuSHA] in summer 1940 at the Central Immigration Office [Einwandererstelle] North-East in Posen (today Poznan) and thereafter served as a medical officer with the SS Division Wiking (SS Pioneer Battalion V), with which he saw action on the Eastern Front. Wounded while on campaign, Mengele returned to Germany in January 1943, and began work at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (KWI) for Anthropology, Human Genetics, and Eugenics, directed by his former mentor von Verschuer. In April of 1943, he received a promotion to the rank of SS captain; this advancement shortly preceded Mengele’s transfer to Auschwitz, on May 30, 1943.

Frankfurt am Main, Germany, The Racial Hygenist (Rassenhygeniker) and later Concentration Camp Doctor (KZ-Arzt) Josef Mengele during his time at the Institute for Genetics and Racial Hygiene (Institut für Erbbiologie und Rassenhygiene) in Frankfurt am Main, which was headed by his second doctoral supervisor Otmar Freiherr von Verschuer.
During his infamous tenure at the concentration camp, Josef Mengele was not the only physician at Auschwitz, nor was he, as common wisdom often maintains, the highest-ranking physician at the camp; this distinction belonged to SS captain Dr. Eduard Wirths, whose position as garrison physician made him responsible in all medical matters for the entire camp complex. Mengele began his career at Auschwitz in the spring of 1943 as the medical officer responsible for Birkenau’s Gypsy Camp; several weeks after its liquidation, Mengele undertook a new position as Chief Camp Physician of Auschwitz II (i.e., Birkenau), in November 1943, still under Wirths’ jurisdiction. Approximately 30 physicians served at Auschwitz during the period in which Mengele was assigned to the camp.
 
As a requisite feature of their rounds, medical staff performed selections of prisoners on the ramp, determining from among the mass of humanity arriving at Auschwitz who would be retained for work and who would perish immediately in the gas chambers. Known as the Angel of Death, or sometimes as the White Angel, for his coldly cruel demeanor on the ramp, Mengele is associated more closely with this selection duty than any other medical officer at Auschwitz, although by most accounts he performed this task no more often than any of his colleagues. Undoubtedly, this association is partially explained by his postwar notoriety, but the ubiquitous image of Mengele at the ramp in so many survivors’ accounts has also to do with the fact that Mengele often appeared off-duty in the selection area whenever trainloads of new prisoners arrived at Auschwitz, searching for twins.
 
Mengele had become interested in utilizing twins for medical research through Verschuer, famous for experimenting with identical and fraternal twins in order to trace the genetic origins of various diseases. During the 1930s, twin research was seen as an ideal tool in weighing the variant factors of human heredity and environment. Mengele, with his mentor, had performed a number of legitimate research protocols using twins as test subjects throughout the 1930s. Now, at Auschwitz, with full license to maim or kill his subjects, Mengele performed a broad range of agonizing and often lethal experiments with Jewish and Roma (Gypsy) twins, most of them children. He had a wide variety of other research interests, including a fascination with heterochromia, a condition in which an individual’s two irises differ in coloration. Throughout his stay in Auschwitz, Mengele collected the eyes of his murdered victims, in part to furnish research material to colleague Karin Magnussen, a KWI researcher of eye pigmentation. He himself also conducted several experiments in an attempt to unlock the secret of artificially changing eye color. Less famously, he zealously documented in camp inmates the progression of the disease Noma, a type of gangrene which destroys the mucous membrane of the mouth and other tissues.

 

Jewish twins kept alive to be used in Mengele's medical experiments. These children were liberated from Auschwitz by the Red Army in January 1945.
Jewish twins kept alive to be used in Mengele’s medical experiments. These children were liberated from Auschwitz by the Red Army in January 1945.

IN THE MATTER OF JOSEF MENGELE – LIST OF DOCUMENTS

Warrant for Arrest
Establishment of DOA Task Force
Memo of Understanding re : Search of Army Intelligence Records
Map of Mengele’s Movements
List of German Nationals Detained
List of Josef Mengeles Documents Related to No Man’s Land
Photograph of Schauenstein
Discharge Certificate
Discharge Directives 1-6
Gorby Memorandum
Vilagossaci, December 31, 1946
Der Neue Weg, December 15, 1946
JTS Dispatch, January 5, 1947
Mahnruf, January 31, 1947
Taylor Letter, January 19, 1948
Automatic Arrest Categories
CIC Card on Mengele
Doctors’ Trial Indictment
List of Auschwitz War Criminals Extradited to Poland
Muench Wanted Report
International Red Cross Travel Document
List of Historical Witnesses (Deceased)
List of Historical Witnesses (Interviewed)
Preliminary Forensic Report, June 21, 1985
Josef Mengele’s SS File
Forensic Report on SS File
Photograph-Skull Superimposition
Comparison of Photographs
Letter describing Mengele’s death
Almuth Letter
Forensic Reports on Documents
The Ortner Report
Gama Chart
Tutiya Chart
Fredini Record
Mengele’s School Records
Forensic Report, dated November 6, 1986
FBI Letter Concerning DNA
Chronology
DNA Analysis, March 12, 1992, by Professor Alec J. Jeffreys and Dr. Erika Hagelberg, with transmittal letter and press statement of the Frankfurt Prosecutor’s Office
Report of Brazilian Police Special Agent Erich Erdstein [n.d. 1968), released by the Parana state government on July 24, 1991
State Court – Frankfurt am Main, 22nd Criminal Division 19 January 1981 (22) 50/4 Js 340/68

Warrant for Arrest Against Josef Mengele

Family photo taken in Paris, France 1942 of 7 year old Bernard Lerer standing beside his older sister and in front of his father. The family was murdered in Auschwitz on Aug. 23,1942.
Family photo taken in Paris, France 1942 of 7 year old Bernard Lerer standing beside his older sister and in front of his father. The family was murdered in Auschwitz on Aug. 23,1942.
Born on 16 March 1911 in Guenzburg on the Danube (governmental district Swabia/Free State Bavaria), birth registered at the registry office Guenzburg under register number 29/1911, former Doctor of Philosophy and of Medicine, dispossessed of academical degrees according to the public announcement of the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich and the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main on 23 September 1964, son of the engineer and machine manufacturer Karl Mengele and Walburga Theresia Mengele, nee Hijpfauer, of German nationality, dispossessed of the Paraguayan nationality pursuant to the decision of the Supreme Court in Asuncion dated 8 August 1979, last residence in home country : Am Stadtbach 4, D—8870 Guenzburg, last known residence : – Asuncion (Paraguay), present place of residence unknown, alias : Jone Mengele, born on 16 March 1911 in Guenzburg, alias : Doctor Jose Mengele born on 16 March 1911 in Guenzburg, alias : Helmut Gregor, born on 6 August 1911 in Termeno (Province Trento/Italy), alias : Helmut Gregori, born on 6 August 1911 in Termeno, alias : Doctor Fausto Rindon, alias : S. Jose Alvers Aspiazu detention pending trial is ordered. He is strongly suspected of having killed people, having attempted this and having instigated and aided and abetted the killing of people, motivated by thirst for blood and other base motives, in a malicious and cruel way, and with generally dangerous means, between 24 May 1943 and 18 January 1945 in Auschwitz (Oswiecim/Poland) and other places through several independent acts partially in joint acts in numerous cases the exact number of which has not yet been ascertained. These charges are based on the following facts :
 
In the years 1940 to 1945 the former National Socialist Government of the German Reich operated a concentration camp with several additional camps within the city limits of the town Oswiecim in occupied Poland in the area of Upper Silesia; for a time the concentration camp was divided into three camps that were independently administered and designated as Auschwitz I to Auschwitz III. Among other functions the camp Auschwitz served as extermination camp. In the camp countless people were killed who, according to the National Socialist conception at that time, were considered inferior, in particu1arJews, Slays and Gypsies. The extermination on a massive scale took place mainly in the camp Auschwitz-Birkenau, and specifically in such manner that, under the pretext of a shower, the people destined to die were brought into specially prepared chambers where they were suffocated in a very painful way through hydro-cyanic acid fumes of the poison gas compound Zyclon B. The execution of these measures as well as the command and the guarding of the camp devolved on the Schutzstaffel (SS), a military organization of the National Socialist German Labor Party. As a rule, only the ones unfit to work were destined to die through gassing. The ones persecuted on racial and political grounds who appeared fit to work were forced to work in the camp as well as at construction sites and in businesses in the surrounding area, sometimes under inhuman conditions.

 

The suspect Mengele, as an SS Hauptsturmfuehrer [Captain) and SS camp physician, is charged with having killed, deported and imprisoned people of the concentration camp Auschwitz on account of their race, sometimes in a sadistic and bestial way, motivated by pleasure in killing and by arrogance towards Jews, Poles, Gypsies, and other groups of people he considered inferior. On the basis of knowledge obtained through the judicial preliminary investigations, he is accused of the following detailed charges :

001 The suspect Josef Mengele is strongly suspected of having cooperated, as SS camp physician, in the massive extermination of Jewish people, and specifically in such manner that, at the arrival of the so-called RSHA [Reich Security Main Office] transports in the concentration camp Auschwitz, he, together with SS officers of the camp command and other SS physicians, sorted out on the railway platform the children, the elderly and the senile people, those who were ill, incapacitated and weak, and women who were discernibly pregnant, as not fit to work, destining them to a very painful death by suffocation through hydro-cyanic acid fumes in the gas chambers of the extermination camp; and further by supervising at the gas chambers when men of the medical ranks of the SS threw the granulated hydro-cyanic acid compound Zyclon B through the funnels into the chambers in which the people destined to die stood closely packed together, or by throwing in the compound himself.

002 The suspect Mengele allegedly participated especially often and eagerly in these arrival or platform-selections. It is not possible, not even in approximation, to assess the number of selections supervised by him and the number of people who were selected to die. According to submitted testimonies, however, it can be presupposed that he carried out arrival selections at least at the following times : (1) At the end of May 1943 at a transport of deported people organized by the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA) with which the female witness Friendman-Englaender arrived; (2) In the year 1943 at a transport with which the female witness Morgen arrived,where he hit an older Jew already selected to be gassed, who wanted to go to his son in the group of those fit to work, with an iron studded stick on the head in such a violent way that the skin of the head and probably also the skull was split and the older gentleman fell to the ground dead; 3. On 20 July 1943 at a RSHA transport from Paris, with which the witness Doctor Horeau arrived (369 men were admitted to the camp as fit to work, a total of 440 persons were gassed); 4. On 1 August 1943 at the first RSHA transport from the ghetto Bendsburg (Bedzin) with which the witnesses Jack and Rachel Rozmaryn arrived; 5. On 2 August 1943 at a RSHA transport from the ghetto Bendsburg (Bedzin) at which he destined to death by gassing, among others, several relatives of the witness Kugelmann; 6. On 3 August 1943 at a RSHA transport from the ghetto Sosnowitz (Sosnowiec) with which the female witness Mangel arrived (448 women and 404 men were admitted to the camp as fit to work, an unknown number of people were gassed).

 

Hungarian Jews on their way to the gas chambers. Auschwitz-Birkenau
Hungarian Jews on their way to the gas chambers. Auschwitz-Birkenau

I saw starving prisoners eat dead humans and a baby's legs torn off by evil Nazi officers in horror Auschwitz camp. (The chilling tale of the Holocaust)
I saw starving prisoners eat dead humans and a baby’s legs torn off by evil Nazi officers in horror Auschwitz camp. (The chilling tale of the Holocaust)
7. On 23 August 1943 at a RSHA transport from the labor camp Kolo with which the female witness Garfinkiel arrived; 8. On 26/27 August 1943 at a RSHA transport from the Province Posen [Posnan] with which the witness Jacobs arrived; 9. On 23 September 1943 at a RSHA transport from Westerbork, Netherlands with which the female witness Himel arrived (288 women and 303 men were admitted to the camp as fit to work, 388 persons were gassed); 10. On 20 December 1943 at a RSHA transport from Drancy, France with which the female witness Bentata arrived (112 women and 233 men were admitted to the camp as fit to work, 504 persons were gassed).
 
11. On 8 September 1943 or 8 March 1944 at a transport at which he destined to death through gassing, among others, the mother of the female witness Springer; 12. At the beginning of April 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the female witness Erzsebet Gardonyi arrived (approximately 800 people were gassed); 13. In April 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which, the female witness Friedmann arrived; 14. At the end of April 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the female witness Athasz arrived; 15. At the end of April 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the female witness Doctor Rozolia Faludi arrived; 16. At the end of April 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the female witness Szegoe arrived; 17. On 30 April 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the female witness Magdolna Frank arrived, at which he, with the help of an interpreter, summoned those who felt ill, tired or weak, to mount trucks by which these persons were then driven to the gas chambers; 18. On 30 April 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the female witness Weis arrived; 19. On (29 April or) 1 May 1944 at a RSHA transport from Drancy with which the female witness Elina-Fruffy arrived; 20. On 2 May 1944 at a transport of Hungarian and Yugoslav Jews with which the female witness Strakova arrived.

 

Jews before going in the gas chambers in Auschwitz, 1944
Jews before going in the gas chambers in Auschwitz, 1944

Auschwitz, in line for "selection"
Auschwitz, in line for “selection”

Alida Boas murdered in the gas chamber in Auschwitz on Aug. 26, 1942
Alida Boas murdered in the gas chamber in Auschwitz on Aug. 26, 1942
21. In May 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary at which he destined to death by gassing, among others, the parents of the female witness Veszi; 22. In May 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the witnesses Farkas and Sztahon arrived; 23. In May 1944 at a RSHA transport from Munkacevo [Mukacevo] with which the female witness Drotarova arrived; 24. In May 1944, at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the witness Doctor Hajdu arrived.
 
25. In May 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary where he destined to death by gassing approximately 1000 people, among whom the wife and three children of the witness Fried; 26. In May 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the female witness Veronika Lengyel arrived, at which he, together with other SS physicians, destined to death by gassing approximately 1000 to 1500 people; 27.On 20 May 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the witnesses Magdolina Gardonyi, Moskovits, Weiner, Feif and her twin brother arrived (58 women and 34 men were admitted to the camp as fit to work, approximately 1000 persons were gassed); 28. On 21 May 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary at which he destined to death by gassing, among others, the daughter of the female witness Brandl; 29. On 21 May 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the witness Rubin arrived; 30. On 22 May 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the female witness Fabian arrived.

 

Jewish women and children wait in the grove before being forced to go to the undressing
Jewish women and children wait in the grove before being forced to go to the undressing

31. On 23 May 1944 at a RSHA transport from Drancy with which the female witness Lance arrived (247 women and 221 men were admitted to the camp as fit to work, 410 persons were gassed); 32. On 26 May 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the female witness Guttmann arrived; 33. On 29 May 1944 together with Doctor Capesius at a RSHA transport from Hungary (2000 Jews were admitted to the camp as fit to work, the rest were gassed, among whom Doctor Koevari and Doctor Loewenstein from Micasasa, the wife and the three daughters of the witness Doctor Berner; 34. At the end of May 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the female witness Walter arrived.
 
35. At the end of May 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary at which he destined to death by gassing, among others, the parents and the brother of the female witness Somogyi; 36. At the end of May 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary at which he destined to death by gassing approximately 1000 people, among whom the mother and the 12 year old brother of the witness Hegayljai; 37. On 31 May 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the witness Bergmann arrived (1000 women and 1000 men were admitted to the camp as fit to work, an unknown number of persons were gassed); 38. On 1 June 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the female witnesses Adler, Ben Shlomo, Czengeri, Koppel, Kraemer, Pasternak and Weissmann arrived (26 Jewish women were admitted to the camp as fit to work, an unknown number of persons were gassed); 39. On 2 June 1944 at a RSHA transport from Drancy with which the female witness Garon arrived (134 women and 239 men were admitted to the camp as fit to work, 624 persons were gassed); 40. On 2 June 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the female witness Rosenbaum arrived.

 

Arrival of a train containing Jews deported to Auschwitz death camp in Poland. Auschwitz
Arrival of a train containing Jews deported to Auschwitz death camp in Poland. Auschwitz

Aline Korenbajzer Nationality: French (Jewish) Residence: Paris, France Death: 1942 Cause: Murdered in Auschwitz (buried in Auschwitz death camp) Age: 2
Aline Korenbajzer Nationality: French (Jewish) Residence: Paris, France Death: 1942 Cause: Murdered in Auschwitz (buried in Auschwitz death camp) Age: 2
41. In, June 1944 at a RSRA transport from Hungary with which the female witness Holczer arrived; in this case he carried out an additional selection, after the shower, of the women who were lined up naked in front of him; 42. In June 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary at which he destined to death by gassing, among others, the brother Tibor of the witnesses Istvan and Josef Laufer; 43. In June 1944, together with the Doctor of Medicine Koenig at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the female witness Berger arrived; 44. In June 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary at which he destined to death by gassing, among others, the parents of the female witness Revesz; 45. In June 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the female witness Ungerleider arrived; 46. On (3 or) 4 June 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary at which he destined to death by gassing the mother and sister-in-law of the witnesses Simon and Klara Frank; 47. In the middle of June 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary at which he destined to death by gassing approximately 500 to 700 people, among whom the father of the witnesses Gyoergy and Marton Lusztig; 48. On 13 June 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the female witnesses Gordonova and Schmellerova arrived; 49. On 14 June 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary at which he destined to death by gassing, among others, the daughter of the female witness Klara Havas; 50. On 14 June 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the female witnesses Fast and Nesher arrived.

 

Jewish women and children forced to walk towards the gas chambers.
Jewish women and children forced to walk towards the gas chambers.

Prewar portrait of two Belgian Jewish sisters who later were killed in Auschwitz
Prewar portrait of two Belgian Jewish sisters who later were killed in Auschwitz
51. On 15 June 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the witness Schwarcz arrived and at which occasion the suspect destined to death by gassing, among others, the mother of the female witness Erdei; 52. On 17 June 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the female witness Elbaum with her twin sister arrived (two girls and eight men were admitted to the camp, an unknown number of people, among whom the mother and another sister of the female witness Elbaum, were gassed; 53. On 17 June 1944 at a RSHA transport with which the female witness Svitackova arrived; 54. On 29 June 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the female witnesses Feuerstein and Katz arrived whose mother and brother(s) and sister(s), together with other Jews, he destined to death by gassing.
 
55. The end of June 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary at which he destined to death by gassing, among others, the grand parents, aunt, sister-in-law, niece and cousin of the female witness Doctor Denes; 56. The end of June 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the female witness Jammik arrived; 57. The beginning of July 1944, together with the SS physician Doctor of Medicine Koenig, at a RSHA transport from Hungary at which they destined to death by gassing approximately 1500 people among whom the parents and the grandmother of the female witnesses Agnès and Judith Havas; 58. On 4 July 1944 at a RSHA transport from Drancy with which the female witness Bloch arrived (223 women and an unknown number of men were admitted to the camp as fit to work, 406 persons were gassed); 59. On 8 July 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary at which he destined to death by gassing, among others, the grand parents and other relatives of the female witness Peter; 60. On 10 July 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which female witness Magdolna Szabo arrived (four women and an unknown number of men were admitted to the camp as fit to work, approximately 1000 people were gassed).

 

An undated archive photograph shows Auschwitz II-Birkenau main guard house which prisoners called “the gate of death”. An undated archive photograph shows Auschwitz II-Birkenau’s main guard house which prisoners called “the gate of death” and the railway with the remains of abandoned crockery. The railway, which was built in 1944, was the last stop for the trains bringing Jews to the death camp. (Reuters)

61. The middle of July 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary at which he destined to death by gassing, among others, the mother and the brother Pal of the witnesses Antal and Jozsef Brodt; 62. On 25 July 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the female witness Stern arrived; 63. On 25 or 26 July 1944 at a transport at which he destined to death by gassing, among others, the father of the witness Joseph Frankiel and a two-year-old child; 64. On 31 July 1944 at a RSHA transport from the ghetto Blizyn with which the witness Margulis arrived (822 women and 1614 men were admitted to the camp as fit to work, around 500 persons were gassed); 65. The middle of July – the beginning Of August 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary at which he, together with the SS physician Doctor of Medicine Koenig, destined to death by gassing an estimated more than 1000 people, among whom several relatives of the female witnesses Olga Kovacs and Lenke Szabo.

66. In July-August 1944 at a RSHA transport from Litzmannstadt [Lodz] at which it came to an incident on the platform during which Mengele shot a mother, who did not want to be separated from her approximately thirteen-year-old daughter, together with the daughter; this induced Mengele out of rage over the incident to destine to death by gassing after all the deported people who had already been selected as fit to work; 67. In August (1943 or) 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary at which he destined to death by gassing the mother of the witness Kun; 68. On 3 August 1944 at a RSHA transport from Drancy, with which the female witness Jacubert arrived (291 men and 283 women were admitted to the camp as fit to work, 560 persons were exterminated, among whom allegedly about 300 children were burned to death alive in the crematory by order of Mengele; 69. On 8 August 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary with which the female witness Kemeny arrived (1414 women and an unknown number of men were admitted to the camp as fit to work, an unknown number of people were gassed; 70. In August 1944 at a RSHA transport from Hungary at which he destined to death by gassing approximately 500 to 600 people among whom the aunt of the female witness Bojtar.

The children of Auschwitz rescued by the Red Army, 1945
The children of Auschwitz rescued by the Red Army, 1945

71. In August 1944 at a transport from Sered with which the female witness Laks arrived; 72. In August/September 1944 at a RSHA transport from Litzmannstadt (Lodz) at which he allegedly shot a child of the sister of the female witness Horowitz before her eyes; 73. On 5 September 1944 at a RSHA transport from Westerbork, Netherlands which arrived the female witnesses Boeken, Jansen and De Winter as well as Anne Frank, who died in March 1945 in the concentration camp Bergen-Belsen, and her mother and sister (212 women and 258 men were admitted to the camp as fit to work, 549 persons were gassed); 74. On 3 November 1944 at a RSHA transport from Sered with which the witness Dianont arrived (509 men were admitted to the camp as fit to work, 481 men were gassed).

003 : The suspect Josef Mengele is strongly suspected of having participated actively and decisively, as SS camp physician, in the so-called camp selections and selections in the barracks for ill prisoners; during these selections he singled out those prisoners who, since their arrival in the camp, had become unable to work because of hunger, privation, exploitation of labor force, illnesses, epidemics, maltreatment or because of other reasons and whose immediate recovery could not be expected, but also those prisoners who had contagious or merely unpleasant illnesses – for instance skin rashes, some to be killed by injections or by shooting, some to be killed by very painful suffocation through hydro-cyanic acid fumes in the gas chambers, in order to make room in the camp for prisoners who were able to work.
 
In numerous cases, he allegedly personally killed those prisoners who had been selected by him or other SS physicians in the above described way, by injecting phenol, gasoline, Evipan (a sleeping drug and anesthia), chloroform, air or other substances into the blood stream, especially into the heart chamber, sometimes under the pretext and semblance of a treatment, or he allegedly ordered and supervised the killing of these prisoners by men of the SS medical ranks; sometimes also, in cases of camp and medical barracks selections, he allegedly supervised men of the SS medical ranks at the gas chambers as they threw the granulated hydro-cyanic acid compound Cyclon B through the funnels into the chambers in which the people destined to die stood closely packed together, or himself threw the compound in. Because of their everyday occurrence and their uniformity, the number and scope of these camp and medical barracks selections carried out by the suspect MENGELE, can be ascertained with as little precision as the number of people killed. Nonetheless, at least the following cases can be established concretely :

Zuzi Frenkel Zuzi was sadly murdered in Auschwitz-Birenkau in 1944 at age 4
Zuzi Frenkel Zuzi was sadly murdered in Auschwitz-Birenkau in 1944 at age 4
1. On 25 May 1943, on the occasion of a quarantine of the Gypsy Camp B II e in Birkenau ordered by him, he allegedly destined to death by gashing 507 male and 528 female gypsies suspected of having typhoid fever. 2. On 25 or 26 May 1943, during a selection in the infections disease barracks 32 of the Gypsy Camp, he allegedly spared the Reich German Gypsies while he sent about 600 others to be gassed. 3. On 26 May 1943 he allegedly carried out a selection of those who had typhoid fever in the medical barracks of the central camp. 4. During one of the selections in Camp B II b in Birkenau in the summer of 1943, he allegedly destined to death by gassing, among others, a female prisoner after she had recovered from a gunshot injury. 5. At a selection in the fall of 1943 in the women’s concentration camp, at the request of the suspect, every block had to provide twenty emaciated female prisoners (so-called Moslems) who were subsequently killed.

 

6. In November 1943 he allegedly carried out selections in the block of the detail assigned to work outside the camp. 7. Between 3 and 22 December 1943 he allegedly carried out at least one selection in the medical barracks for prisoners of the women’s concentration camp. 8. In December 1943 he allegedly destined to death all occupants, without any exception, of block 11 of the women’s concentration camp in Birkenau. 9. During a typhus-delousing action in the women’s concentration camp Birkenau at an unspecified time, he allegedly proceeded in such a way that first he sent all, that is about 400, occupants of a block to be gassed, then had the block disinfected, the women of the adjacent block placed in the initially cleared block after singling out the ones suspected of having typhus and disinfecting the remaining prisoners and proceeding in this way until all those who were suspected of having typhus had been singled out to be killed by gassing and all other women and all buildings had been disinfected. 10. In December 1943 – January 1944 he allegedly carried out a major selection in the women’s concentration camp at Birkenau during which he allegedly destined to death approximately 7000 women.

 

Central DB of Shoah Victims' Names - Record Details- Anna Frischmann was sadly murdered by Zyklon B
Central DB of Shoah Victims’ Names – Record Details- Anna Frischmann was sadly murdered by Zyklon B
11. In January 1944 he allegedly selected in the surgery block of the medical barracks for prisoners in the women’s concentration camp. 12. On 8 January 1944 he allegedly singled out a third of the occupants of the Birkenau camp to be killed. 13. In February 1944, he allegedly singled out all, that is about 500 ill people of block 17 in the women’s concentration camp to be killed. 14. In the period between 2 and 12 July 1944, under his direction, the so-called Theresienstadt family camp in the camp section B II b in Birkenau was allegedly liquidated in such a way that first, on 2 July 1944, he singled out 3080 Jews as fit to work, after which on 11 July about 3000 and on 12 July the remaining, that is about 4000, occupants of the camp were allegedly gassed.

 

15. In July 1944 at a selection in the women’s concentration camp at Birkenau, he allegedly destined to death by gassing at least several hundred people. 16. At the end of July 1944, he allegedly picked out several hundred prisoners in the C camp to be killed. 17. The suspect Josef Mengele is strongly suspected of having participated in the so-called liquidation of the Gypsy Camp (of the section B II e in the camp Auschwitz-Birkenau) on 31 July/2 August 1944, by carrying out, together with other SS physicians, a selection on the basis of which 1408 Gypsies were transferred to the concentration camp Buchenwald, while the remaining 2897 Gypsies were killed by gas in the above described way. During this disbandment of the Gypsy Camp, a Gypsy girl of about four years of age who turned to Mengele with the words Uncle Doctor and did not want to leave him, allegedly, on a sign from the suspect Mengele, was seized by her leg by a German Kapo (prisoner-foreman) and her head hurled against the wheel of a truck such that the skull of the child was smashed. During the liquidation of the Gypsy Camp he allegedly personally shot two Gypsy boys between about 10 and 14 years of age. He allegedly drove two piepel (boys who serve the prisoner functionaries) in his car to the crematory where they were killed, because-they had hidden themselves during roll call and therefore the number of prisoners ascertained was incorrect. Also during the liquidation of the Gypsy Camp, the suspect Mengele tried to transfer seven pairs of twins to the research block 10 of the central camp with the purpose of pseudo-medical experiments. When he didn’t succeed in this for organizational reasons, he allegedly shot the fourteen Gypsies in the crematory and subsequently held an autopsy on them.

 
Already before this in the nursery of the Gypsy Camp, 17 pairs of twins and 12 handicapped children from the Gypsy Camp had allegedly been killed by the suspect Mengele himself or on his orders and immediately afterwards dissected by him in the crematory. 18.In August 1944 he allegedly, among other selections, made a selection in the camp section B II a in Birkenau. 19. In 1944, for a time, he allegedly carried out almost daily selections in the prisoners medical barrack 12, as well as in block 24 of the women’s concentration camp at Birkenau. One of the ways he allegedly expressed his contempt for Jews especially painful for them was to carry out selections on their highest holy days. Thus he allegedly. 20. selected Jewish children on the Friday before the Jewish New Year celebration of 1944 in the camp section B II e in Birkenau.

Jenny Lejzerorowicz murdered in the gas chamber in Auschwitz
Jenny Lejzerorowicz murdered in the gas chamber in Auschwitz
21. On the day of the Jewish New Year celebration of 1944 he allegedly destined to death by gassing 328 children in the camp section B II d in Birkenau; 22. On the day of the Jewish Yom Kippur in 1944 in the camp section B II e in Birkenau he allegedly mounted a bar between the posts of a soccer goal at the height of approximately 1.45 to 1.50 meters and destined to death by gassing approximately 1000 children who did not reach this height; 23. In the fall of 1944 he allegedly carried out a selection in the sauna on the occasion of the transfer of the weaving-detail to the camp section B II b; 24. At the end of October-November 1944 the suspect allegedly carried out a selection in the tuberculosis block 29 of the women’s concentration camp.
 
25. In October 1944 he allegedly sent all occupants, without exception, of the medical block 28, situated near the “twin block” in Birkenau, to be killed by gassing; 26. On 13 October 1944 he allegedly destined to be gassed 170 women from the prisoner’s medical block 22 in the women’s concentration camp in Birkenau; 27. At a selection among Jews who had arrived the day before from Plaszow, on 23 October 1944, he allegedly singled out at least 235 people to be exterminated; 28. At another selection on 23 October 1944, in the women’s concentration camp at Birkenau, he allegedly removed the female witness Fabrykant, who had already been singled out to be killed, from the group of Jews who were destined to die, but took away her child and sent it with the other Jews to the gas chambers; 29. In the year 1944, for a time, he allegedly carried out almost daily selections at roll calls in the camp section B I a in Birkenau. In addition to the central camp Auschwitz and at the Birkenau camp, he allegedly also made selections; 30. in the Buna-Monowitz camp while prisoners were marching off to work. 31. in the medical block for prisoners in the Fuerstengrube sub camp.

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