Nurse Helen Fairchild
As a little girl I knew how proud my father was of his sister who had been a nurse in World War One. When the boys in the fourth grade said, She doesn’t count, she’s a girl, I was stung by their unfairness. How could anyone say she was not a veteran too ? Oh the stories I’ll tell when I get home wrote Nurse Helen Fairchild in 1917, while serving with the American Expeditionary Force in France. Aunt Helen, 32, volunteered to be one of the first to go overseas after the United States entered World War 1, April 5, 1917. She volunteered to go to the Front, July 31, 1917, to Casualty Clearing Station #4. Through her letters written to her family, which have been so lovingly preserved and are owned by her niece Mrs Nelle Fairchild Rote, Nurse Fairchild is at last telling her story !
Nurse Helen Fairchild, RN was born on the Nov 21 1885 in Turbot Township, Milton, in central Pennsylvania and graduated as a nurse from Pennsylvania Hospital in 1913. One month after America declared war on April 6 1917, Helen volunteered to go overseas with 63 other nurses from Pennsylvania Hospital. She was assigned to duty as a Nurse on the May 7 1917 and nursed in Flanders during the Battle of Passchendaele (Ypres). She had a history of abdominal pain after meals before she left for France and during November 1917 she suffered from a recurrence. By Christmas she was vomiting after every meal and a Barium meal X-Ray revealed a large gastric ulcer obstructing her pylorus. She underwent a gastro-enterostomy operation for the pyloric obstruction on the January 13 1918. Initially she did well but she became jaundiced on the third day post-operatively and deteriorated rapidly, dying in a coma at 1120 on January 18 1918. Nurse Fairchild’s cause of death was attributed to acute atrophy of the liver. The final cause of death was considered to be a result of hepatic complications of the chloroform used for her general anesthetic.
Last Letter sent Home, Nurse Helen Fairchild, Base Hospital #10, December 28 1917
Had a letter from the States this week and was glad, for being sick this far from home is no fun, but everyone has been fine to me. My room is filled with flowers they bring me, and fruit galore. Miss Dunlop does everything she can to make me comfortable and came in and talked with me every couple of hours. She wanted me to come up in the cot in her sitting room, but I did not want to do that, for Wagner wanted me to stay in our own room where she could do things for me. Wagner sure is a friend indeed.
Dr. Norris was just in to see me and told me I could stop some of my medicine. He said my throat looked much better but I still can’t go on duty until I eat and get some color, so I see my finish, for as usual, I look like the wrath of Kingdom come, but I’ll make them let me go back soon, for it’s too lonesome here to be off duty.
Gee but I’ll be glad to see you all by the time this war is over, but at the same time I am glad to be here to help take care of these poor men, and I’ll be doubly glad when our own US boys will be in this part of France with us, for they will be so far from home, and they will have no one but us American nurses to really take any genuine interest in them, for their own friends will not be able to reach them.
What the Red Cross and the YMCAs are doing for us here means so much to us. Really, it would be awful to get along without the things they send us. Most of the pleasure that the troops get are the ones provided by the YMCA. If you could only see what the boys here have to go through sometimes, you would see they need all the comfort possible. Without the supplies sent to us by the Red Cross Society, we could not do half as much for them as we are.
Please tell me what it was that everyone seems to have heard concerning me at home. Of course, whatever it was, as you know, is not correct, for as I have told you often, anytime anything should happen, you would be notified.
Heaps of love, your very own, Helen
In 1899, the Surgeon General set criteria for a Reserve Force of nurses. The Spanish-American war proved that without a reserve force, there would be a nursing shortage during wartime. On Feb 2, 1901, the Nurse Corps (female) became a permanent corps of the Medical Department under the Army Reorganization Act (31 Stat. 753) passed by the Congress. After the start of WWI, the Army’s Department of Medical Relief worked with the American Red Cross to establish base hospitals in Europe, initially designated to serve the British Expeditionary Forces. Due to increased needs of military nurses in the war effort, the Army Nurse Corps increased from approximately 4100 to 21460 between 1917-1918. They served at base and evacuation hospitals in Europe as well as transport ships, hospital trains in France and mobile surgical hospitals stateside. The war provided an impetus for more professional requirements, and the Army School of Nursing was opened on 25 May, 1918, setting professional standards and which later helped to provide a viable reserve force for WWII. The authorized strength of the Army Nurse Corps decreased to nearly 1500 during the Interwar Period after WWI. By 1945, the number of Army nurses reached over 57000 Army nurses worked tirelessly during WWII, often enduring the same hardships as combat troops. 215 nurses died while bravely serving. 67 army nurses were held as Japanese prisoners of war for 37 months in the Philippines after the fall of Corregidor in 1942, during which they continued to care for the wounded. Nurses played an integral role in medical advancements; access to care closer to the front lines, advanced surgical procedures and post-surgical nursing, the administration of blood products and improvements in evacuation procedures led to greatly improved survival rates. Fixed wing air evacuations moved the wounded to definitive care more quickly, and flight nursing was born. The first class of Army flight nurses to graduate was in February, 1943. This text will tell you the way things started.
Twenty-Eigth Street Building 1855-1872
Mount Sinai Hospital Time Line
The Jews’ Hospital in New York, is incorporated for benevolent, charitable and scientific purposes. Sampson Simson is the first President.
The new Hospital is opened, on May 17, in a four-story building with 45 beds, at 138 West 28th Street, between Seventh and Eighth Avenues. The original Staff of ten men includes Dr Valentine Mott and Dr Willard Parker. In accordance with the usage of the period, there is no separation of Medical and Surgical Services, because surgery is not considered sufficiently important; nor are there any specialized services.
In its first full year the Hospital cares for 225 patients. Operating expenses total $5,493.
The Hospital opens its wards to wounded Federal soldiers of the Civil War, installing additional beds and increasing its personnel for the purpose.
To make it clear that the Hospital serves the community without distinction of race or religion, its name is changed to The Mount Sinai Hospital.
The Hospital is moved into a new 3&1/2 story building with a capacity of 120 beds, on Lexington Avenue from 66th to 67th Streets.
The Medical Board and House Staff are organized at a meeting at the home of Dr Willard Parker, who becomes first Chairman of the Board.
The Hospital takes a bold step forward by appointing two women to professional positions : one to the House Staff and the other as Apothecary.
The Outdoor Dispensary (Out-Patient Department) is formally established, with four divisions : Medical, Surgical, Gynecological, and Children’s.
Reflecting the advances in surgery and increase in surgical practice, the Hospital establishes separate in-patient Medical and Surgical Services.
An in-patient Gynecological Department is established, headed by Dr Emil Noeggerath, pioneer in the study of gonorrhea.
Creating a precedent among New York hospitals, a separate service for in-patient care of children is established, through a legacy from Michael Reese of California. Dr Abraham Jacobi heads this department.
An Eye and Ear Service is organized, headed by Dr Emil Gruening, who in 1888 performs one of the early mastoid operations in America.
Dr Arpad G. Gerster, early champion of Listerian surgery, is appointed Attending Surgeon.
The School of Nursing is established, one of the country’s pioneer nurses’ training institutions. There are eight students when the School opens.
The Hospital building is enlarged to a capacity of 190 beds, and an isolation building is added. Space for private patients is increased, indicating the emergence of the modern hospital as a medical center for all instead of an institution for the poor only.
Dr Edward Gamaliel Janeway, one of the great diagnosticians of his time, is appointed to the Staff.
A committee is formed to develop the Hospital’s Medical Library.
The Hospital grants its diploma to Dr Josephine Walter, first woman in America to serve a formal internship.
To relieve overcrowding of the Hospital and care for patients who can be treated at home, a District Medical Service is organized, first of its kind in the city.
The Out-Patient Department is greatly expanded, housed in a new building. Neurological, skin, and venereal disease clinics are established.
The Laboratory is established, housed in a cloak room – not much larger than a bird’s cage.
The Genito-Urinary Service is established, with Dr William F. Fluhrer as its first chief.
The Hospital purchases its first X-ray machine.
The cornerstone of the present group of Hospital buildings is laid, on May 22. The original ten buildings have a bed capacity of 456.
The new Hospital buildings are dedicated, on March 15.
A Department of Dietetics is established.
The Social Service is formed, one of the earliest hospital services of this type in the country.
An independent Otological Service is established.
The Dental Department for in-patients is established. (Extended to the Out-Patient Department in 1925).
The Hospital begins postgraduate medical instruction.
Physical Therapy is established as a separate department.
The Cystoscopv Room is built and outfitted (enlarged and refitted in 1933).
A large building program is initiated. Funds are collected for the Children’s Pavilion and Dispensary, Private Pavilion, Laboratory Building, Director’s Home, and Employees’ Dormitory.
Mount Sinai organizes Base Hospital #3 of the US Army Medical Corps. (In 1918, 24 physicians, 50 nurses, and 153 enlisted personnel serve with this Unit at Vauclaire, France.)
The Social Service Auxiliary is formed by women volunteers who attend to many wants of convalescent patients and of patients’ families.
The Federation for the Support of Jewish Philanthropic Societies is organized, with Mount Sinai as one of its constituents and beneficiaries.
The Children’s Health Class is organized.
The Psychiatry Clinic, one of the earliest in a general hospital, is established.
The Private Pavilion, the Children’s Pavilion, and the Blumenthal Auditorium are opened.
The affiliation with the College of Physicians and Surgeons for postgraduate medical instruction, is placed on a formal basis.
The Occupational Therapy Department is established.
A Metabolism Clinic is established.
A beginning is made toward establishment of an endowment fund for support of medical research, hitherto precariously dependent on occasional donations.
The weekly Clinical-Pathological Conferences are established, regularly attended by several hundred physicians.
The new building of the School of Nursing is completed, accommodating 476 residents.
The Consultation Service is established, providing diagnostic service by specialists for patients of moderate means referred by their own physicians.
The Semi-Private Pavilion is opened, increasing the capacity of the Hospital to over 800 beds. Group nursing, providing 24-hour nursing care at a much reduced cost, is introduced in this Pavilion.
A separate Neurosurgical Service is created.
To keep up the morale of convalescent patients, unemployed because of the depression, the Social Service Workroom is established.
The Out-Patient Department building is modernized.
The Journal of the Mount Sinai Hospital is established. It is distributed to universities and medical libraries throughout the world.
The Medical and Surgical Pavilions are modernized.
The Neustadter Home in Yonkers is affiliated with the Hospital as its institution for convalescents.
The Isolation Ward is rebuilt and becomes the first in the city approved by the Department of Health for private patients.
The Blood Bank is established under the direction of the Department of Hematology.
The Administration Building is renovated, providing enlarged and improved facilities for teaching, diagnosis, and treatment.
Radiotherapy is separated from Roentgenology and established as an independent department.
An Electroencephalographic Unit is established at the Hospital for use in the diagnosis of intracranial lesions.
Mount Sinai prepares to do its share for national defense – organizes the 3rd General Hospital of the US Army.
The Hospital collects blood plasma for Britain. Approximately 260 people volunteer their blood every week.
War activities are expanded to include : First Aid courses for physicians, nurses, and employees. Training of volunteer Nurses’ Aides in cooperation with the Red Cross. Catastrophe emergency units for Civilian Defense. Lectures and courses on medical problems of the war.
The Hospital’s Ninetieth Anniversary Year.
Physicians, nurses, and employees on active service with the armed forces number 657 by December 31, 1943.
Third General Hospital of the United States Army arrives for active service in North Africa and establishes hospital of 1,000 beds.
Second Mount Sinai Unit, Affiliated Hospital Unit #30, organized at request of US Public Health Service for work in the United States.
Mount Sinai is first hospital to complete quota for blood plasma for the Civilian Defense Blood Bank.
The Mount Sinai Unit, Base Hospital #3, Vauclaire, Dordogne, France, 1919
Administration Building & Residence of the Commanding Officer at the Entrance of the Hospital Grounds
Base Hospital #3 was organized in September, 1916, at the Mount Sinai Hospital, New York City. It was called into active service November 14, 1917, the entire command being mustered into service by November 21, 1917. The armory of the First Field Hospital, National Guard of New York, New York City, was selected as the mobilization and training center. The nurses were mobilized January 15, 1918, at Ellis Island, N. Y. The unit remained in training at the armory until February 6, 1918, when it embarked on the Lapland, leaving New York the same date. The Lapland arrived in Halifax on February 8, and left for Europe on February 13, 1918, reaching Glasgow, Scotland, February 25, 1918. The nurses of Base Hospital #3 were detached from the unit at Glasgow, and sent by way of London to the casual depot at Blois, France, and rejoined the unit April 18, 1918. The officers and enlisted men proceeded to Southampton, England, arriving on February 26, 1918. On the following day they crossed the English Channel on HMS Hunslet, arriving at Le Havre, France, February 28, 1918. The officers and enlisted men left Le Havre March 1, 1918, by train en route to Vauclaire, Department of the Dordogne, base section #2, their permanent station, arriving there March 3, 1918. An old monastery, comprising numerous cement buildings, was turned over to Base Hospital #3. In two months’ time these had been converted to hospital purposes, later being expanded to a hospital of 2,800-bed capacity. The first patients arrived May 13, 1918, Hospital Train #53 bringing 104 patients from Base Hospital #9, Chateauroux. The railroad station was 2,5 miles from the hospital, but as ample motor transportation had been provided, evacuation of trains was never delayed. During its activity, May 13, 1918, to January 20, 1919, Base Hospital #3 cared for 9,127 patients, surgical and medical. This hospital was designated by the chief surgeon, AEF, as one of the hospitals to receive cases of suspected pulmonary tuberculosis, 222 such cases being admitted during its period of activity. The largest number of patients in hospital was November 5, 1918, when 2,765 sick and wounded were being treated. Base Hospital #3 ceased to function as a hospital on January 20, 1919, having been relieved on that date by Base Hospital #71. The unit of Base Hospital #3 left Vauclaire on March 7, 1919, and proceeded by rail to the Beau Desert Hospital Center, to await transportation to the United States. It sailed on the Pastores, March 14, 1919, and arrived at Newport News, Va., March 26, 1919. The entire unit was demobilized at Camp Upton, N. Y., on April 4, 1919.
Col Michael A. Dailey, MC, 08-23-1917 – 10-17-1918
Maj Herbert L. Celler, MC, 10-18-1918 – 10-21-1918
Lt Col George Baehr, MC, 10-22-1918 – to demobilization
Chief of Surgical Service
Lt Col Howard Lillienthal, MC
Maj John W. Means, MC
Maj Walter M. Brickner, MC
Chief Medical Service
Lt Col Herbert L. Celler, MC
To those fortunate ones whose desire to share in the active work of the relief and healing of our sick and wounded in France led to their association with Base Hospital #3, this little booklet, with its pictures and reminiscences will serve as a treasured reminder of the bittersweet days in old Vauclaire. It will bring back to mind the magnificent old monastery on the bank of the Isle, recalling the many months of grueling work, but no less the moments, not too many, of relaxation from the mental and physical strain of the routine service in a big army hospital in the field. To those less fortunate, whose interest in our success was equally great, but who, by force of circumstance remained behind to do their part at home, thus making our going over possible, it will be welcome as a simple tale of the fortunes of the little band that set forth one bleak winter day to carry the Stars and Stripes and the Banner of Mount Sinai across the perilous seas on its errand of mercy to war stricken France. As a matter of fact, in 1916 shortly after the Mexican outbreak and long before the participation of the US in the war with Germany, the Mount Sinai Hospital of New York City, the parent organization of Base Hospital #3, expressed its willingness to organize and place in the field a fully equipped Base Hospital. The idea was conceived by Mr Geo Blumenthal who furnished the needed funds for the original equipment, stimulated interest in the plan and thus made possible the organization of the Unit.
The Doll Houses. The left one was the Office and the Residence of the Chief Nurse
The organization was then enrolled by the Red Cross, but the need for Base Hospitals not being urgent at that time the Unit was not called upon for active duty. About one year later, in the late Spring of 1917, our country having taken up arms in the common cause against the Central Powers, the Unit was federalized, the medical officers inducted into the Medical Reserve Corps, the nurses into the Red Cross, and authority issued for the recruiting of men for the enlisted personnel of US Base Hospital #3. To Maj Walter M. Brickner, then a captain, was officially assigned the responsibility of enlisting the volunteers needed, and this competent officer selected from the hundreds of aspirants a splendid group of America’s best, bearing always in mind the necessity of gathering together a personnel not only physically perfect and unquestionably loyal, but also representing the many professions and trades an isolated unit would necessarily require in its work. The wisdom of this was amply proved again and again, for, limited as were our numbers, we were never at a loss for competent technical men and artisans in all lines. Meanwhile many of the officers were assigned to the various Medical Officers· Training Camps throughout the country, where courses of intensive training were given to fit them for the complicated business of army medical work, which differs so markedly from civilian practice. True to form, several of those officers who came to learn, remained to teach and returned to the Unit with well earned promotions.
On Aug 31 1917, Maj Michael A. Dailey, MC, having been assigned by the War Department as Commanding Officer of US Base Hospital #3 arrived in New York and assumed command. Under his guidance, plans for mobilization were perfected and the hospital equipment, largely the donations of the Board of Trustees of Mount Sinai Hospital and of the American Red Cross, was assembled in readiness for transatlantic shipment. The enlisted personnel were taught the rudiments of drill by those members who had had previous military experience, and the elements of hygiene, first aid, stretcher-bearing and kindred subjects by several of the senior officers, so that when in November they were mustered into service at the armory of the First Field Hospital at 56 West 66th Street, their home until sailing day, they had mastered the ground work of their army medical duties. Here they were soon joined by the officers returning from training camps and all preparations were completed for over seas orders.
South side of main Monastery Building and the Garden
The upper floor of the main monastery building was devoted to the officers’ quarters and the men’s recreation room. The lower floor included the officers’ mess-hall and kitchen, the pharmacy, the post and telegraph offices and the admitting room of the hospital. A large refectory and a private chapel in the interior of the building housed the Xray department and the nurses’ mess hall.
General Hospital #3 1918 Vaucaire France – Men Mess Hall
The large chapel of the monastery was utilized as a mess-hall for the patients and the enlisted men of the hospital’s detachment. In the evening, it was readily convertible into a movie house; and often, with the aid of a little talcum powder or boric acid, the beautiful mosaic floor was made to serve admirably for the nurses’ dances. A small chapel to the left with its adjacent corridors and cells was used as a store room and distributing department for medical supplies.
General Hospital #3 1918 Vaucaire France – Men Mess Hall Entrance
The nurses had meanwhile been mobilized at Ellis Island in the harbor, with Miss Amy H. Trench in charge. Finally arrived the eventful and long awaited day. None knew, but all suspected the secret as we stealthily left the Armory in the early morning hours of Feb 6 1918, ostensibly on a practice hike. The men, with full packs, were marched across Broadway to Riverside Drive and 72nd St., where they boarded a small steamer and were carried to the White Star piers. Here they were joined by the remainder of the officers, the nurses and civilian employees, and embarking on the good ship “Lapland” unobtrusively slipped out of the harbor, all hands below deck, on the momentous trip across the submarine infested Atlantic. Once out of sight of land, we were given the freedom of the decks and had the opportunity of realizing fully our good luck in being transported on so comfortable and staunch a liner. For two days the Unit, consisting of 24 officers, 65 nurses, 5 civilian employees and 153 enlisted men were the sole passengers, until, arriving at Halifax, 1500 Canadian troops with officers and “nursing sisters” were added to the list. After a stay of 5 days in the harbor without shore leave, we left for Liverpool, one of a convoy of 7 vessels. Among these were the English armored cruiser Prince Albert as protector, and an Australian troop ship which had already been en route to the battle area some three months. Unusually tempestuous weather and rough seas were encountered and there were many mal de mer casualties. One gale of exceptional severity lasting three days, during which our big stern gun and several life-boats were damaged, caused the convoy to scatter. Three more days were consumed in circling about in the endeavor to reassemble the dispersed ships.
The hours on board were spent in life-boat drills, lectures, reading and in the fascinating sport of watching for the appearance of periscopes. Nor should mention be omitted of our inseparable companion, little Fosco, the ever present life preserver which orders required be always worn or at hand. Our Canadian friends helped pass the time by giving amateur theatricals, and a mock trial. Of course, strict precautions were taken to avoid showing lights at night-all port holes were kept closed and only meager illumination permitted within. No smoking was permitted on deck after sundown. A popular rendez-vous was the dug-out, a pitch dark foyer below the promenade deck, but that’s another story. After what seemed an interminable time, but was in reality but 18 days, during which we tacked and zigzagged back and forth all over the Atlantic, we at last simultaneously sighted both land and our welcome escort of six British destroyers, that convoyed us safely through the danger zone, escorting us well up into the mouth of the Clyde, our destination having been changed to Glasgow on account of unusual submarine activities at this time in the Irish Sea, particularly about the port of Liverpool. Passing the rocky shores of Ireland on our right we came in sight of the beautiful purple and green clad hills of Scotland illuminated by a most glorious sunset, and our hearts were full of thankfulness for our safe traverse of the danger zone. Even the weather was kind, and after the weeks of cold and wind at sea, the warm balmy air was most welcome. Later in the evening, in the soft light of a full moon, we dropped anchor in the pretty harbor of Greenoch, Scotland.
The Yanks are Coming
Leonard P. Ayres, Colonel, G. S.,
Chief if the Statistics Branch of the General Staff
During our 19 months of war more than 2,000,000 American soldiers were carried to France. Half a million of these went over in the first 13 months and a million and a half in the last 6 months … The highest troop-carrying records are those of July, 1918, when 306,000 soldiers were carried to Europe and May 1919, when 330,000 were brought home to American … Most of the troops who sailed for France left from New York. Half of them landed in Great Britain and the other half landed in France … Among every 100 Americans who went over 49 were in British ships, 45 in American ships, 3 in Italian, 2 in French and 1 in Russian shipping under British control … Our cargo ships averaged one complete trip every 70days and our troop ships one complete trip every 35 days … The cargo fleet was almost exclusively American. It reached the size of 2,600,000 dead weight tons and carried to Europe about 7,500,000 tons of cargo … The greatest troop-carrier among all the ships has been the Leviathan which landed 12,000 men, or the equivalent of a German division in France every month … The fastest transport have been the Great Northern and the Northern Pacific, which have made complete turnaround, taken on the new troops, and started back again in 19 days.
Troop Sailings from American Ports (POE) to Great Britain and France Ports (POD)
Our 3 hours’ trip up the Clyde the next morning was in the nature of a triumphal review. The water way, lined with immense shipyards working at high pitch to keep up with the daily loss of ships, is but a few yards wider than the beam of the Lapland and, as we steamed slowly along, the shipyards poured forth thousands of employees, mostly girls and women in overalls, to greet with lusty cheers their first sight of Uncle Sam’s khaki. It was on this trip that our officers donned for the first time their Sam Browne belts, thus enhancing the picture. Arriving at Glasgow shortly after noon on Sunday, Feb 26, we were greeted by the news that the unit was to be divided temporarily. The nurses and civilian employees under the charge of Maj Geo Baehr made their way to London, thence to Folkestone, across the channel to Boulogne, through Paris to the Casual Depot at Blois. As we afterward learned, this step was taken so that the services of the nurses might be utilized in other hospitals, since the buildings assigned to us required considerable preparation before they could be made ready for the reception of patients. Stoically repressing our grief at the separation, the remaining officers and men bade farewell to our companions, disembarked, and while Capt Ira Cohen and his detachment were busily unloading our precious trunks, barrack bags and bedding rolls from the hold, enjoyed the novel experience of walking on terra firma and getting acquainted with the Scotch. They were duly impressed by our appearance. We overheard one Scot explaining that the US of our insignia indicated that we were Ustralians
Gathering up our impedimenta we marched to a nearby station of the Caledonian Railway and boarding a special train, to most, a first experience with the compartment car proceeded at great speed south-ward through Scotland and England arriving at Southampton before noon on the following day. A 3 mile hike brought us to a soi-disant Rest Camp where we were detained fortunately but one night, hiking back to the dock the following afternoon to board the now famous Channel boat HMS Hunslet.
The HMS Hunslet was built at the Tyne Yard of Wigham Richardson, for the German Hansa Company of Bremen, Germany. The ship was to be used on the Hamburg to India route. The vessel was launched on March 28 1898 under the name Tannenfels. When World War I started in August 1914, the Tannenfels was at Batavia, and became a German naval auxiliary attached to the Pacific Squadron. On Sep 14, the Tannenfels was captured in the Basilian Strait by the HMS Chelmer (destroyer), she was, on Oct 8, renamed Basilian at Hong Kong, and operated as an Admiralty supply ship in the Pacific. In 1915, after the elimination of the German Pacific Squadron, the Basilian returned to the United Kingdom, and in December, was renamed Hunslet by the Shipping Controller. In Jan 1917, the Hunslet was managed by the White Star, and later, her management was transferred to Union Castle.
The Hunslet was an old cattle boat captured from the Germans. We have consistently contended that the Boches deliberately permitted its taking thus adding to their crimes against humanity. A dirtier, more stuffy and more uncomfortable boat could not be imagined. Our men were obliged to occupy the hold without bedding and the officers fared not much better, a group of 8 of us being assigned to a stable on deck. And it is not conducive to sleep to wear a life preserver in lieu of pajamas. But we got across safely, without encountering any Fritzie Sea Hens as the sailors termed the German mine laying subs, or any of their Eggs and at dawn of the last day of February we sighted the coast of France, our long sought objective : the theater of the Great Drama. Landing at Le Havre, our boys cleaning the boat thoroughly before they disembarked, we again went through the strenuous experience of relaxing at a Rest Camp, being routed out at 0200 next morning to entrain for the interior. Our departure from camp in a drenching rain through miles of mud and darkness and to the accompaniment of an air raid and the boom of anti-aircraft guns will long remain in our memories as out first intimate touch with the actualities of the conflict.
Troops of the AEF in St Nazaire, France 1918
Entraining at Le Havre, we started on a three day journey Somewhere in France not knowing our destination, but judging our course by the towns through which we passed, aided by our memory of school-day geography and more accurately by the railroad Indicateur. Tours, Angoulème Coutras – where thanks to the forethought of Major Beer we enjoyed our first honest to goodness in the 3 days and were we spent the night in real beds. The following day, we proceeded by way of a branch line to Montpon, Dordogne, whence a hiked 2.5 miles brought us to the terminus of our 5000 miles journey : the beautiful 14th century Monastery on the bank of the Isle at Vauclaire, the home of the Base Hospital #3 in France. It was the consensus of opinion among those who were best able to judge that the Mount Sinai Unit was given the best hospital site in France from the point of view of buildings and surroundings. Certainly the combination of a grand old pile of massive cloisters by the side of the winding Isle, with its group of modern concrete ward and service buildings was unique and admirably adapted to our purpose. Delving back into the past, we find that old Vauclaire has had an interesting and variegated history. Refreshing our memory by referring to the text of a beautiful collection of photo-types and a resume by Capt Denzer of the Abbe Gouzot’s La Chartreuse de Vauclaire en Perigord (Riberac, 1859) we learn the following :
The idea of founding a Carthusian Monastery is ascribed to Helie VII, Comte de Perigord, who selected this region on both sides of the Isle River as its site. Death, however, prevented the execution of his pious wishes, which were finally consummated by The Three Lights of the Province, Archambaud IV, Roger Bernard and Cardinal Talleyrand to whom King Philip V gave permission to start the monastery. In 1328, the legal formalities were concluded and in 1330 work was begun, the monastic lands having been set aside. These included (we repeat the names as much for the pictures they recall as for their historical value) the land between the Isle River and the Chemin du Pizon, the island and the fields whereon was built the mill, the vineyard of St Martin de Montignac, the Métairie de Pomarede in the parish of St Martial d’Artenset, and la dome de paroises de Vauvains et Pizon. Of the Counts of Perigord, the most celebrated was without doubt the Cardinal Elie Talleyrand, a pious and powerful man. His prominent part in papal politics, to which four popes owed their election, led Petrarch to say of him ‘that it is better to make popes than to be one’. He it was who really founded the monastery.
Talleyrandus fundavit an. 1330
Deus instauravit an. 1858
reads the inscription on a base relief in the hall of the main building and between these two dates Vauclaire and its inhabitants suffered many trials, disorders and vicissitudes. The Hundred Years’ War compelled them to abandon their home and seek shelter in Bordeaux, and in their 70 years absence, the monastery, exposed ceaselessly to the belligerents, fell in ruins. It was not until Charles VII, driving the English from Aquitaine with the aid of the immortal Jeanne d’Arc, brought peace and prosperity again to France, that the monks returned and restored their home, gradually reaching a period of peace and prosperity under the protection of Louis XI and Charles VIII. But about 1560 began a series of religious conflicts ‘more deadly than political wars’. Protestantism, hardly born, was already a power and Vauclaire did not escape the ravages of the invaders. The new religion, under the influence of the House of Navarre, entered Perigord in 1562 by way of Bergerac, conquering also Mussidan and Montpon. The soldiers pillaged, burned and killed, looting the monastery of much of its furniture and trappings. Again was it profaned in 1568, and of this particular attack our chronicler remarks, profound mists enveloped the abbey, even the lamp of the sanctuary was dimmed. They (the Protestant soldiers) crossed the court, filled with terrible shadows. They rushed into the church, lighted the candelabras accustomed to show the ceremonies and joys of holy men, and ran through the chapel, the cloisters and cellules. They met only one monk, 80 years old. They killed him and threw his body into the Isle. They broke the images of saints and burned the church and cloister. The work of many generations of monks and two centuries of patience was destroyed in a night – such was the character of that occurrence, the most lugubrious in the history of monastic annals.
Thus eras of peace and prosperity alternated with prolonged periods of destruction and poverty. In 1615 the monks were again driven out but, returning after a year, enjoyed a long period of tranquility and prosperity, the period of the ‘Glory of Vauclaire’ which was again interrupted during the trying days of the Revolution, when, expelled by the Assembly in 1793, they sought refuge in Italy and Spain. The year 1858 saw the restoration of the monastery to the Carthusian order. The monks at once occupied themselves in rebuilding their beloved home from its ruins, and as they then restored it, so it stands in large part to-day.
Our chronicler, with a hint of prevision, asks, Shall the peaceable inhabitants of Vauclaire be ever again expelled from their home ? Peut-être. For current history tells us that in 1900 the State, having the upper hand, banished the members of the order and confiscated all its properties. The French Government appreciating the splendid natural and architectural possibilities of Vauclaire, set about establishing an institution for the care of mental cases. Without disturbing the magnificent old buildings, save the abolition of some of the cellules, they erected a score of modem, one and two-story cement buildings, including wards, a kitchen, a power plant, a laundry, two hydropathic buildings, large and small dormitories, and a sewage disposal plant. The outbreak of the great War in 1914 made necessary the abandonment of the asylum construction, then 95% complete, France needing every able bodied man in the service. It was to this novel combination of a restored monastery and modem hospital buildings that Base Hospital Unit #3 was assigned for duty.
Vauclaire – Entrance
Vauclaire – General View
Vauclaire – the Barn
By way of digression, let us relate an odd superstition of the countryside. The peasants, never reconciled to the banishment of their beloved monks, retain the fixed idea that the frères will again return, as history tells they always have. Soon after the arrival of the officers and men of the unit, the rumor spread that we were the Carthusian monks returned in disguise, and this belief was openly and repeatedly expressed in the town of Montpon on market days. Though 95% structurally complete, much preparatory work remained to be done before the Hospital could be declared ready for patients. Here Yankee ingenuity and adaptability came to the fore, and officers and men played the role of carpenter, plumber, road builder, laundryman, engineer, farmer, housekeeper and the like, goaded on by the desire to do our best (and by Maj Dailey). Rapidly the place took on its new aspect of order and completeness. Tons of equipment were set up and made ready; operating rooms, wards, medical and quartermaster storerooms, kitchens, laboratories, a garage, bath houses, living quarters were equipped; some of the nurses were recalled and finally the word Ready was flashed to headquarters.
Meanwhile, despite our many and varied occupations, we had already established most cordial relations with the good people in the neighborhood. It is but fitting that we include a word of appreciation of our dear friends in and about Montpon – who did all in their power to lessen our nostalgia, by kindly visits, helpful suggestions and frequent invitations to dine at their homes (and a most acceptable change these made from our army diet), and who by their extreme kindness and thoughtfulness, made our long stay in a foreign land much less harsh and onerous than it would otherwise have been. All of us will retain pleasant memories of the acquaintances made Over There. Who of us will ever forget for example that kindly gentleman, M Henri Laborde the banker, the man who would open his bank at night, on Sundays and on holidays to accommodate us, and never would charge a sou to members of the Unit for his services; who saw to it that we were not overcharged in the shops and markets and whose dinners were a potent argument against prohibition. No history of the Unit would be complete without a reference to the Puits d’Or, that quaint little old hotel tucked in a side street where Mme Patinet served our hungry boys (and girls) a most delightful dinner for 5 francs. She worried daily until 7 PM lest she had over stocked her larder and after that hour lest she have not enough for her guests.
But let us return to the Hospital. The first patients received, other than civilians of the neighborhood and members of the command, were from the artillery centers in Libourne and Perigueux. These were soon followed by a convoy of battle casualties arriving by Hospital Train #53. The railroad approaching Vauclaire reached no nearer than Montpon, some 234 miles away, necessitating the transportation of the sick and wounded the rest of the way by motor ambulances and trucks. A well thought out system for the reception of patients in large numbers was established. At the station a special siding was employed where hospital trains were shunted from the main tracks. Here a group of medical officers superintended the debarkation of the patients and their transfer to the waiting line of motors. The value of the hours of stretcher drill in New York was here manifested in the smoothness and celerity with which this was accomplished. Arriving at the Hospital, the ambulances circled the grounds, passing through the old cloisters, which the good monks had wisely built just wide enough to permit the passage of a White Motor Ambulance, thus permitting each of the sick and wounded to be brought to the door of the ward to which he had been assigned. No time was lost in getting the patients in bed, bathed, warmed, fed, and made as comfortable as their physical disabilities would permit.
Hospital trains had a habit of arriving at night; nevertheless the entire staff of nurses, doctors and personnel would be on duty properly to prepare for, receive and administer to their new charges. On Jun 11, there were 558 patients in the wards. It should be remembered that our original organization and equipment contemplated the care of only 500 patients. After Jul 21, we never had fewer than 1000. This number increased by leaps and bounds after each offensive, until by October our 500 bed hospital had expanded to crisis capacity and was accommodating over 2800 sick and wounded. The amount and variety of labor in the administration and running of so vast an establishment was necessarily very great. To the lay mind and to a great extent also to the civilian practitioner’s mind, a war hospital means only the actual medical and surgical treatment of sick and wounded. One is apt to overlook the vast amount of correlated duties entailed; as for example the keeping of accurate and detailed records, the maintenance of an adequate system of sanitation and of supply, the preparation and distribution of food, clothing, equipment, and other materials, the repeated examinations necessary for the listing and evacuation of cured, convalescent, and permanently disabled soldiers, the problems of transportation and of the maintenance of discipline by a force of military police not only at the hospital but in the surrounding villages, the establishment of courts of justice, of a post office, of places of worship for the various sects represented and of ways and means of diverting the patients and personnel by innocent amusement and entertainment.
We were really a small town, the inhabitants numbering at one time nearly 4000, an isolated community with all the usual and many of the unusual activities there to be found. As an added handicap to our busy unit, our little band of workers was always below its original numerical strength due to the detachment, individually or in groups, of nurses, medical officers and enlisted men for duty elsewhere in the SOS or in the Zone of Advance. Early in March 1918, Lt Poll and Lt Oppenheimer were selected from a group of volunteers to proceed to La Courtine, where they were soon joined by Lt Rosenthal, Lt Bleier and Lt Skversky; Lt Poll and Lt Skversky never rejoining the unit, the others returning after several months absence. Capt Ira Cohen was selected to establish and to command a camp hospital at Libourne; his continued absence was both our loss and Libourne’s gain. He did literally break into the hospital again by way of a motorcycle accident but that too is another story. Several surgical teams comprising surgeons, nurses and enlisted men were organized for duty in the more advanced posts. Of these, one headed by Lt Col Lilienthal and including Maj Brickner and Maj Frank, Nurse Bailey, Nurse Dooley and Nurse Gibbons, and PFC Shean and PFC Zehetner, made a splendid record at Evacuation Hospitals back of Verdun. Another group headed by Maj Beer, and numbering in addition Maj Sternberger and Maj Meyer, Nurse Overend and Nurse McCormick and PFC Smith and PFC O’Reilly did fine work at Neuilly and later at Evacuation Hospital #7. Lt Denzer was for some time assigned to the Central Laboratory at Dijon. Maj Baehr, detailed to Bordeaux to establish a laboratory center, was soon recalled to Vauclaire to be joyously welcomed as our new Commanding Officer, replacing Maj Dailey, Maj Celler having held the reins until his arrival. The writer spent five busy months as eye surgeon of Evacuation Hospital #2 at Baccarat.
In July, 22 EM were transfered to the 77th Division then in the Vosges. Two other, Caesar and Hacker, were accepted from among a number of volunteers for experimentation with trench fever. These examples of the reduction of our forces will serve to show the handicap under which we labored. At the end of June, there were but 12 medical officers and a dental surgeon at the post with a corresponding lack of nurses and men. Of course it is not to be inferred that our depleted and ever changing original unit was obliged to continue it’s labors unassisted. In response to demands for help, groups of casual officers, nurses and men were assigned to the hospital for long or shorter periods. To some of them we were indebted for most valuable assistance. For example, for some time we had with us 70 nurses at Base Hospital Unit #22, and later, the personnel of the 333rd Ambulance Company, an unusually fine group of men. Special mention must be made of Maj John Means of Base Hospital #22 who in the absence of all our senior surgeons, acted as Chief of the Surgical Service during two of the busiest months, and of Capt J. Ullman who so competently supervised our special fracture service.
Emergencies in the advanced area, besides crowding the hospital capacity, also necessitated calling forward teams and groups from our establishment, so that by a species of vicious cycle, the arrival of a heavy convoy of wounded was the signal for the departure of surgeons, nurses and men. But we nevertheless managed to handle the situation and with all due modesty admit that Base Hospital #3 did excellent work. Without delving too deeply into the mass of available statistics, it is most interesting and instructive to note that of a total of 9127 patients treated at Base Hospital #3, including convoys of wounded received direct from the battle line, as well as victims of the epidemics of influenza, there were but 172 deaths (54 surgical and 118 medical, the latter mostly due to influenza pneumonia.) These 172 martyrs, who gave their all in the great cause, lie buried in the quiet, white walled cemetery at Menesterol and we are certain that our good friends and allies of the Dordogne will ever keep their resting place sacred and well cared for.
The cessation of hostilities on November 11, instead of terminating our work, found us at the highest point of our activity. The hospital was crowded to crisis capacity, the wards all full, cots and beds closely aligned throughout cloister, verandas, halls, corridors, and recreation rooms. Additional space was made available by condensing the quarters of officers and men. Eight of ten huge barracks, each accommodating from 120 to 160 men had been erected by the engineers and were housing their full quota. However, the rush of new patients having ceased, and the evacuation of old ones continuing as rapidly as was consistent with safe transportation, (over 2400 patients being evacuated in December) the wards, corridors and barracks were soon depleted, so that when, on January 11, 1919, US Base Hospital #71 arrived at Vauclaire to relieve our Unit there were but 441 patients remaining. The transfer was effected and US Base Hospital #3 ceased to function as a base hospital on January 20, 1919, the outfit however, remaining at Vauclaire in the status of a casual organization.
Now ensued a period of enforced rest from our strenuous labors, a tedious wait until transportation facilities could be provided for our homecoming; and it is an interesting commentary on our personnel that instead of enjoying the days and weeks of relaxation, they sighed for the busy days of useful work that were ended. Many of us took advantage of permission to visit the countryside, near and far, but the danger of missing the boat kept most of the Unit close to Vauclaire. In this interval, several changes in our personnel occurred. 17 nurses selected from a large group of volunteers, left for Trèves, Germany, for duty with the Army of Occupation, as did also Lt Rosenthal. Lt Col Lilienthal and later Maj Brickner, Maj Yankauer and Maj Goodman returned to the United States in advance of the unit. Finally, after several false alarms, the welcome orders arrived, directing the departure of the officers and nurses and on February 15, 1919, this group bade farewell to Vauclaire, the enlisted men, officered by Lt Col Baehr, and Lt Marin joining with our good friends of Montpon in giving us a rousing send off, in spite of a drenching rain. A last trip in the quaint compartment cars of the Paris – Orleans through Coutras and Libourne brought us to Bordeaux, where after a night as guests at a Base Hospital at Tallance we motored to Bassens, and boarded the trim little fruiter, the Santa Marta at the mile long American docks.
A seventeen day leisurely cruise along the Southern route relieved from absolute boredom by the energy and resourcefulness of Capt Bendick, who drove away ennui by a series of deck dances, shuffle board tournaments and the like, brought us at last on March 5, 1919, to New York and home. And how welcome was the sight of the well known skyline ! Our entrance into the harbor assumed the nature of a pageant for as we passed Bartholdi’s Statue of Liberty, the George Washington outward bound, with President Wilson on her bridge en route to the Peace Conference and convoyed by a flotilla of destroyers gave us a noisy welcome. The President, uncovering, smiled and waved a greeting. The enlisted personnel of Base Hospital #3, officered by Lt Col Baehr, Capt Stem and Lt Marin, left Vauclaire two days later (March 7), and on March 14, embarked at Bassens on the USS Pastores, an hospital ship carrying some 1500 sick and wounded, whose wants they looked after during the trip home. Landing at Newport News, March 25, they proceeded to Norfolk, Virginia, and thence to New York City. After a few days at Camp Upton they were honorably discharged from the military service of the US. Our handsome and competent Quartermaster Capt Schwab electing to remain the AEF, was transferred to Monte Carlo and promoted to the rank of Maj, Q.M.C. Meanwhile the nurses and officers had likewise returned to civil life and the Mount Sinai Unit after its splendid work of mercy ceased to exist as an official entity. But to its members it will always continue to exist in memories of the work carried on in the old monastery and along the firing line.
Roster of the Mount Sinai Hospital Unit
Base Hospital #3
Lt Col Michael A. Dailey, 20-10-1918
Lt Col George Baehr, 21-10-1918 / 23-04-1919
Lt Col Howard Lilienthal, Chief of Surgical Service
Lt Col Herbert L. Celler, Chief of Medical Service
Lt Col Edwin Beer, Surgeon
Maj Walter M. Brickner, Surgeon
Maj Robert T. Frank, Surgeon
Maj Leo B. Meyer, Surgeon
Maj Sidney Cohn, Surgeon (Adjutant until Oct 1919)
Maj Edwin Sternberger, Physician
Maj Sidney Yankauer, Laryngologist
Maj Ira Cohen, Surgeon
Maj Daniel Poll, Physician
Maj William A. Schwab, Quartermaster
Capt Arthur J. Bendick, Radiographer
Capt Samuel H. Geist, Surgeon and Registrar
Capt Harry E. Salzstein, Surgeon
Capt Cyril Barnert, Ophthalmologist
Capt Edward Bleier, Surgeon
Capt Bernard S. Denzer, Chief Laboratory Service
Capt Abraham Skversky, Neurologist
Capt Nathan Rosenthal, Physician
Capt Jacob Asch, Chief of Dental Service
Capt Leo Stern, Dental Surgeon
1/Lt E. D. Oppenheimer, Orthopedic Surgeon
1/Lt W. M. Frankenheimer, Medical Supply Officer
2/Lt H. Ned Marin, Adjutant & Detachment Commander
2/Lt James Marshall, Assistant Registrar
2/Lt Edwin W. Brand, Motor Transport Officer
Amy H. Trench, Chief Nurse (To Jan 1919)
Nina M. Coad, Acting Chief Nurse (From Jan 1919)
Elizabeth K. Dixon
Dora W. Fluekiger
Margaret A. G. Hickey
Alice B. Hill
Helen A. Lees
Frances E. Dessell
Nancy G. McGhee
Helen J . Moses
Mabel E. Shortliffe
May L. Woughter
The original 153 enlisted men of the Unit bore the brunt of the work at the hospital. Although during times of crisis small groups were detached for service at the front, their numbers were eventually increased by the addition of Ambulance Company #333 (Flint, Mich.) and by detachments from Field Hospitals and Regimental organizations. By the time the Unit ceased operating, the enlisted personnel of the hospital numbered 550.
Enlisted Personnel (Rank as of date of Discharge)
Donald M. Stern, Hospital Sergeant
Albert Dreyfous, Sergent 1st Class
Alvin S. Hirsh, Sergent 1st Class
George E . Tissell, Sergent 1st Class
Charles F . Naurnburg, Sergent 1st Class
William F. Blome, Sergent 1st Class
Abraham Males, Sergent 1st Class
Alexander Nelson, Sergent 1st Class
Alphonse Hedberg, Sergent 1st Class
Harry J. Hammer, Sergent 1st Class
Roswell S. Frichette, Sergent 1st Class
Nathan Freeman, Sergent 1st Class
David Winchester, Sergent 1st Class
Jean M. Begue, Sergent 1st Class
Herbet W. Kastendieck, Sergeant
Charles A. Roth, Sergeant
Irving Friedman, Sergeant
Philip H. Brady, Sergeant
Hermann S. Schwabacher, Sergeant
Myron I. Granger, Sergeant
Karl Propper, Sergeant
Gregory Sophin, Sergeant
Milton Waldman, Sergeant
Albert E. Levy, Sergeant
John E. Harris, Sergeant
Julius Oestreicher, Sergeant
Frank McCoy, Sergeant
Charles E. Lighfoot, Sergeant
Robert Mesnhausen, Sergeant
John R. Upshaw, Sergeant
Martin J. Marran, Sergeant
Clifford A. Golberg, Sergeant
Henry H. Cottrell, Sergeant
Leon Braus, Sergeant
Clifford H. Hermann, Sergeant
Alfred P. Haft, Sergeant
John J. Duffy, Sergeant
Philip Kneeter, Corporal
William P. Tallman, Corporal
Arden Waldman, Corporal
Norman Greenberg, Corporal
Charles Haar, Corporal
Harry Shean, Corporal
Julius Steinberg, Corporal
Sylvester A. Wolff, Corporal
Ronald G. Ingram, Corporal
Benjamin C. Price, Corporal
George M. Bechtel, Corporal
The problem of feeding the population at the post (at times over 4,000) was efficiently handled by the culinary artists of the hospital, a few of whom were cooks by profession. Some of our ablest talent, however, was recruited from men who in former civil life had been watch-makers, steeple-jacks, etc. The magnitude of the food problem can be appreciated when it is understood that the hospital consumed from four to five head of cattle a day. The distribution of supplies to and from the kitchen was accomplished by the use of small Ford trucks which ran through the cloisters
Larent Cateura, Cook
Josef H. Jochems, Cook
Lockwood R. Quinliven, Cook
Nicholas F. Ribsam, Cook
Louis M. Strauss, Cook
John J. Hayes, Cook
Otto H. Kroeger, Cook
Mirko Radovic, Cook
Raymond G. Stoddard, Cook
Otto H. Ahrens, PFC
Joseph L. Berman, PFC
Harry A. Blades, PFC
Henry J. Butt, PFC
Carl R. Carlson, PFC
Herbert W. Daniel, PFC
Howard Dreyfous, PFC
Ludovic A. Fally, PFC
Isidor Friedberg, PFC
Julius Gluck, PFC
Harold Greenblatt, PFC
Carl Henderson, PFC
Walter H. James, PFC
Jerome Krauskopf, PFC
Leon Lessler, PFC
Roceo Marino, PFC
Elmer J. Maxwell, PFC
George W. Morton, PFC
Jan J. Oresky, PFC
Albert J. Rutter, PFC
William F. Schatz, PFC
Sidney Siegel, PFC
Joseph Smith, PFC
Julius Strelitz, PFC
Charles F. Williams, PFC
Charles E. Worster, PFC
Joseph Abelson, PFC
Max Bachrach, PFC
John A. Rice, PFC
John J. Shanley, PFC
Louis M. Strauss, PFC
Frederic V. Guinzburg, PFC
John J. Hayes, PFC
Arnold B. Wertheimer, PFC
Adolph B. Lichtenstein, PFC
Anthony Ast, PFC
Raymond Bizet, PFC
Moses Blumenthal, PFC
Arthur Caesar, PFC
Milton Craw, PFC
Frank Dolan, PFC
Charles Duncan, PFC
Harry Feinberg, PFC
Charles W. Gabriel, PFC
Horatio Gosman, PFC
Lyndon J. Griffin, PFC
John S. Hughes, PFC
Hyman Kranish, PFC
Benjamin Lazrus, PFC
William Malicke, PFC
Sigmund Markowitz, PFC
Edward Miller, PFC
James B. O’Reilly, PFC
Louis Rose, PFC
William R. Schaad, PFC
Benjamin Shindelman, PFC
Herbert I. Smith, PFC
William Sobrofke, PFC
James A. Vinicombe, PFC
John V. Winter, PFC
Frederick Zehetner, PFC
Archibald E. Martin, PFC
Milton Pilot, PFC
Louis K. Roth, PFC
Herman R. Steinberg, PFC
Max Strauss, PFC
William P. Tallman, PFC
Julian Warnstadt, PFC
John J. Lenehan, PFC
William Beards, Private
James V. Clohessy, Private
William T. Devanney, Private
Ira T. Kraner, Private
Sydney A. Rees, Private
Henry R. Whiting, Private
Mortimer A. Loew, Private
Louis Devoto, Jr., Private
Charles Gillman, Private
Louis Goldey, Private
Harry Rudler, Private
Leo Horstein, Private
Paul Strashun, Private
Pierre L. Cerramon, Private
Robert F. Clohessy, Private
Thomas H Ellis, Private
James H Maddocks, Private
Louis Whitestone, Private
Jack Leiman, Private
James G. Manes, Private
Edward L. Monaghan, Private
Jesse Glauber, Private
Israel Goodman, Private
Lyndon J. Griffin, Private
Abraham Scobel, Private
Helen wrote 100 pages of letters during her time in France. Her letters home have been collected and are owned by her niece, Mrs Nelle Fairchild Rote. A selection of these letters were originally published in an article in the Daughters of the American Revolution Magazine by Mrs Rote and they are reproduced here by kind permission of the author. Mrs Rote is the author of a book on her Aunt entitled “Nurse Helen Fairchild WW1” ; details of the book can be obtained by contacting her at her email address Mrs Nelle Fairchild Rotes